Schematic of the synthesis of an oscillator inside an outer CNT: (a) peapod formation through metallofullerene encapsulation into an outer CNT, (b) oscillator synthesis inside the outer CNT using the fullerene merging technologies such as high-temperature annealing39,40 or electron beam irradiation,41 and finally, (c, d) the gigahertz actuator can be initialized by external fields.
(a) An oscillator system consisting of a (5, 5) CNT of length inside a (10, 10) CNT of length. (b) An oscillator system composed of seven potassium ions encapsulated inside the (5, 5) CNT.
(a) Total potential energy of the system and (b) force exerted on the vacant CNT oscillator as a function of the central position of the CNT oscillator along the tube axis ( axis). The thick and the thin solid lines indicate the obtained from the SD simulations and from Eq. (3), respectively.
(a) and velocity of the vacant CNT oscillator and (b) as a function of MD time at for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a). The vacant CNT oscillator was initially displaced by and an external force field of was applied to the shuttle CNT for .
(a) , (b) , and (c) as functions of the MD time at . For the structure shown in Fig. 2(b), the applied force field per ion was for . The vacant CNT oscillator was initially displaced by , which was the maximum displacement of the oscillator. The solid lines and the filled circles indicate the results of the and vacant CNT oscillators, respectively. In (c), the solid line indicates for the oscillator plotted against the left y axis and the filled symbols indicate for the vacant CNT oscillator plotted against the right axis.
(a) of the system and (b) exerted on the oscillator as functions of along the tube axis. The thick and the thin solid lines indicate obtained from the SD simulations and from Eq. (3), respectively.
Variation of of the oscillator as a function of MD time for several applied fields. The oscillator was initially displaced by and the external fields were applied to the oscillator for . The applied external fields per ion were 0 (filled square), 3.8 (thin solid line), 19.3 (thick solid line), and (filled circle), respectively.
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