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Mechanisms inducing compressive stress during electrodeposition of Ni
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of electroplating cell with in situ MOSS system.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Overlay of stress thickness vs thickness plots taken during electrodeposition of Ni onto a Au substrate using a Ni sulfamate-based electroplating bath at .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Steady-state stress vs deposition rate for Ni sulfamate bath plated at 40, 47, and .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Stress evolution for a sample where the deposition rate was dynamically varied during the deposition.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

FIB cross-sectional images of Ni samples electrodeposited at different rates: (a) 180, (b) 50, and (c) .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Change in stress as a function of time after deposition was interrupted for two Ni samples deposited at different rates: ( steady-state stress), black line and ( steady-state stress) gray line.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Stress-thickness plot of two samples cycled between open circuit and in a sodium boric acid solution. The gray line is and the black line is Ni on . Note that similar results were observed with ammonium-sulfamate-based bath.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Concentration profiles of C, S, and O in electrodeposited Ni at (, lower data set) and (, upper data set) deposition rate samples.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Schematic of an atom becoming trapped at the coalescence point of two opposite polarity atomic steps.


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Scitation: Mechanisms inducing compressive stress during electrodeposition of Ni