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Influence of alternating current electrokinetic forces and torque on the elongation of immobilized DNA
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10.1063/1.1825627
/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1825627
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1825627
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Bright-field photograph of the gold microelectrode array. (b) Fluorescent image showing an enlarged view of the electrodes. A , ac voltage was applied to the left middle electrode, resulting in the elongation of λ-DNA from the electrode edge. The DNA was fluorescently labeled with YOYO-1. The separation between opposite electrodes is .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) The electric field around the gold electrodes, calculated using Femlab software. The center top electrode was set to potential , the center bottom electrode to , and all other electrodes were left floating. The electric field was calculated in two dimensions. The arrows indicate the direction of the electric field lines. (b) The value of the electric field as a function of distance between the center top and bottom electrodes. The electric field was calculated in three dimensions, and the values shown here represent the electric field in the plane of the electrode surfaces.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Length of elongated DNA as a function of frequency at an electric field of across a gap: (closed squares), (open squares), (closed circles), and (open circles). The DNA was immobilized onto the gold surface via a terminal thiol, using the multistep procedure and the length was measured from the electrode edge to the edge of the fluorescent band. (b) Length of elongated surface-bound DNA across a gap as a function of electric field at different frequencies: (open circles), (closed squares), (open squares), and (closed circles). Each value is the average of three experiments.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Frames of a video recording of 0.5 and fluorescently labeled latex beads during application of a (a) and a (b) ac electric field with a magnitude of . The arrows indicate the direction of the fluid flow in each case, derived from studying the movement of the latex beads as a function of electric field magnitude and frequency. The line thickness of the arrows indicates the relative fluid velocities observed.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Normalized length of elongated DNA as a function of frequency at an electric field of across a gap: (open circles), (closed circles), (open squares), and (closed squares). The measured DNA length was divided by the theoretical length of the DNA fragment. (b) Normalized length of elongated surface-bound DNA across a gap as a function of electric field at : (open circles), (closed circles), (open squares), and (closed squares).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) The length of elongated and immobilized DNA as a function of electric field at different electrode separations: (open squares), (closed squares), and (closed circles). (b) shows the results for DNA, (c) for DNA, and (d) for DNA, respectively. A maximum voltage of was applied across the electrode gap, and electric field frequency was in all the cases.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1825627
2004-12-16
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Influence of alternating current electrokinetic forces and torque on the elongation of immobilized DNA
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1825627
10.1063/1.1825627
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