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Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of stress relaxation by interface diffusion in a patterned copper interconnect structure
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10.1063/1.1829372
/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1829372
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1829372

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A schematic illustrating a cross section through a typical dual-damascene copper interconnect structure. The thickness of the various layers is not to scale.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) A schematic diagram illustrating the patterned line structures used in experimental measurements. (b) A cross section through the experimental test structure.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Unit cell used in finite element computations.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Measured stress relaxation in an array of damascene copper lines. Results are shown for films passivated with SiN and SiC, as well as for unpassivated lines; and are the components of stress parallel and transverse to the lines, respectively.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Predicted stress relaxation in the idealized interconnect structure as a function of time. (a) Ideal (100) texture and (b) ideal (111) texture.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The influence of changes in elastic modulus of the passivation. The Cu/cap interface has a diffusivity of for both simulations.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Diffusion paths that cause stress relaxation.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The influence of copper grain-boundary diffusivity on the stress relaxation in patterned lines. Results are shown for isotropic grains with Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio (a) . and (b) .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Influence of Cu/Ta interface diffusion on stress relaxation. Results are for isotropic copper grains, other parameter values are listed in Tables I–III. (a) and (b) .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Predicted stress relaxation in lines with various grain sizes: (a) and (b) .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The stress relaxation measured in interconnect structures with CDO dielectric.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Predicted stress relaxation in an interconnect structure with dielectric modulus 4.7GPa: (a) Ideal (100) texture and (b) ideal (111) texture.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Dimensions used in modeling. Grain size, .

Generic image for table
Table II.

Material properties used in numerical simulations.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Estimated values for interface diffusivities.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1829372
2004-12-16
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of stress relaxation by interface diffusion in a patterned copper interconnect structure
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/1/10.1063/1.1829372
10.1063/1.1829372
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