(a) Model geometry for the two-level via-line structures used for the finite element analysis.
Linewidth dependence of stress in damascene Cu lines integrated with (a) and (b) low- dielectric.
Linewidth and spacing dependence of stress in narrow lines integrated with (a) and (b) the low- dielectric. The solid and open points indicate the stresses of the lines with pitches of 0.38 and , respectively.
(a) Hydrostatic stress and (b) von Mises stress of damascene Cu lines integrated with (rectangle) and the low- dielectric (circle).
The volume-averaged individual stress component for the via-line structures with and the low- dielectric of , via, and : (a) , (b) , and (c) .
The volume-averaged individual stress components for the via-line structures with and the low- dielectric of , via, and : (a) hydrostatic stress and (b) von Mises stress.
Cu via embedded in dielectric materials; to simplify the calculations, it is assumed that the via is isolated, and thus not connected to the lines in either the upper or lower levels.
The yield strength as a function of the elastic modulus of the dielectric material for different via widths.
Termomechanical properties of the materials used in the finite element calculations.
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