Interfacial forces present at an ultralow flying HDI; =external force (preload), =air-bearing force, =adhesive force, and =contact force.
Simplified HDI geometries; (a) two flat parallel surface interaction and (b) sphere on flat surface interaction with contact radius .
van der Waals forces for two flat parallel surfaces and a sphere on a flat surface configurations ( for Z-Tetraol lubricant on carbon overcoat).
Noncontact individual adhesive forces vs separation for two flat parallel surfaces with , where is the van der Waals force, is the electrostatic force, is the meniscus force, and is the IDMT adhesive force.
Equivalent isotropic rough surface in contact with an infinitely smooth surface (a) before the onset of contact (b) in contact .
AFM topographical images of disks and slider samples measured at : (a) Disk 1, (b) disk 2, (c) disk 3, and (d) slider.
Electrostatic force extended to rough surfaces as a function of separation: Case 1 (, ), case 2 (, ), and case 3 (, ).
Adhesive force based on the ISBL and proposed adhesive models vs separation for contact between disk and slider surfaces: Case 1 (, ), case 2 (, ), and case 3 (, ) for (showing the onset of contact separation at ).
Net adhesive force based on the proposed adhesive model vs separation for contact between disk and slider surfaces; Case 1 (, ), case 2 (, ), and case 3 (, ) for (showing the onset of contact separation at ).
Individual adhesive force predictions (two flat parallel surfaces) vs rough surface adhesion model predictions for case 3 (, ) for a nominal contact area of ; the inset compares the total adhesive forces from a two flat parallel surface geometry and the proposed model ( from the ISBL model ) predictions.
Nonretarded/retarded van der Waals and Casimir forces for two flat parallel surfaces and sphere on flat surface configurations. and are the nonretarded and retarded Hamaker constants, respectively. and are the Planck constant divided by and the speed of light, respectively.
HDI roughness parameters of slider and magnetic disks: Case 1-rough, case 2-smooth, case 3-supersmooth.
Material properties and other parameters for supersmooth HDI.
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