Domain structure of the SBN:61 crystals (a) with a field of ; (b) after frame (a); (c) after the reversal is complete; (d) piezoelectric force microscopy image of domain (the product of amplitude and the cosine of phase).
The transient current observed during domain reversal of SBN:61 on applying a linearly ramped field at with water electrodes (solid line) or silver paste electrode (solid line with circle).
The hysteresis loop for the SBN:61 crystal measured by applying linearly ramped field at a speed of . (a) Poled with liquid (tap water) electrodes. The solid line and dot line loops are measured for successive polarization reversal cycle 1 and cycle 4. No obvious fatigue observed. (b) Poled with silver paste. Strong ferroelectric aging is observed. (c) The (forward and reverse) measured for (1). tap water electrodes and (2). silver paste electrodes.
The relationship between coercive fields and field ramping speeds for SBN:61 crystals.
The switching time and switched charge in SBN:61 domain reversal under various applied fields with liquid electrode. The switching time is the time needed such that 95% of area has been reversed. The switched polarization remained the same at different fields within a range of .
Domain sideways wall growth in the SBN:61 crystals. (a) The distances traveled along the axis and axis vs time after nucleation of an independent domain under field ; the slope of the curve gives the sideways wall velocities along both -axis and -axis directions, which are the same and equal to . (b) The distance traveled along serrated direction (⟨110⟩ direction) vs time for a merged domain-wall velocity under field . The slope gives the sideways wall velocity . (c) Distances traveled (along either the axis or axis) vs time after nucleation of an independent domain under different fields. (d) Domain-wall velocities of an independent domain under different fields. Time is the instant at which nucleation is observed.
Study concluding that “domain backswitching” in -cut SBN:61 crystal is absent. (a) A pulse of field is applied antiparallel with spontaneous polarization on a single domain crystal to find out the response time of the circuit. constant of the circuit is . (b) A pulse of field is applied parallel to the spontaneous polarization in the same area of the same sample used in (b). Partial domain reveral is induced. (c) The switching current after subtracting the response current from (b). It suggests that there is no backswitching in SBN:61 under a pulse of field.
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