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Comprehensive study of the resistivity of copper wires with lateral dimensions of 100 nm and smaller
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10.1063/1.1834982
/content/aip/journal/jap/97/2/10.1063/1.1834982
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/2/10.1063/1.1834982

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematics of the process flow. From top down: Patterning of amorphous silicon (-Si). Conformal deposition of another -Si layer. Anisotropical etch of the top layer. Oxide etch using the -Si layer as mask. Removal of the mask.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Upper part: TEM cross section of a narrow copper interconnect structure, lower part: SEM cross section of a wide copper interconnect. The copper filling is visibly lined by a tantalum layer at the bottom and the side walls.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental resistivity data of Cu wires. The wires are prepared with a damascene process similar to manufacturing processes in semiconductor industry. Triangles: height of the wires 50 nm, squares; 155 nm, and circles: 230 nm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Top view TEM of a copper interconnect structure. A cross section parallel to the wafer surface was prepared at about 50% of the trench height. The grain boundaries are marked with white lines. The average grain size is extracted by counting the grains along the median line.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Average grain size in dependence on linewidth for 230-nm line height. Circles: TEM inspection, squares: SEM inspection. The grain size is observed to increase linearly for small linewidth, for larger width the grain size reaches a saturation value, which is about a factor of 2 larger than the height.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Resistivity of 50 nm height Cu wires in dependence on linewidth. Circles: experimental data. Continuous line: best fit of the size-effect model. Parameter set is , , and (dash-dotted line). Dashed line: surface contribution to resistivity.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Resistivity of 155-nm height Cu wires in dependence on linewidth. Circles: experimental data. Continuous line: best fit of the size-effect model. Parameter set is , , and (dash-dotted line). Dashed line: surface contribution to resistivity.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Resistivity of 230-nm height Cu wires in dependence on linewidth. Circles: experimental data. Continuous line: best fit of the size-effect model. Parameter set is , , and (dash-dotted line). Dashed line: surface contribution to resistivity.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Sensitivity analysis of the fit parameters and for the data with 50-nm sample height (see Fig. 6). of the fit is shown in dependence on the grain-boundary reflectivity ( axis) and the surface specularity ( axis) at constant bulk resistivity . The contour lines denote values beginning at the center with 0.2 sigma, increasing in steps of 0.5 sigma and ending at the outermost contour with 3.2 sigma. The elongated minimum of indicates a strong correlation between the parameters and .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Fit curves based on extreme parameter sets for and . Besides the “best-fit” set two sets are shown that lie at the one-sigma corridor around the best-fit set (see Fig. 9). The parameters are and (Fit low) and on the other side and (Fit high).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Fit parameters.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/97/2/10.1063/1.1834982
2004-12-27
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Comprehensive study of the resistivity of copper wires with lateral dimensions of 100 nm and smaller
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/2/10.1063/1.1834982
10.1063/1.1834982
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