SEM images of ZnO nanowires grown on Si with different seeds. (a) polished Si (111) (without seeds); (b) gold nanoparticles; (c) Au thin film; (d) ZnO nanoparticles. The growth time was at .
SEM images of aligned ZnO nanowires (ZnO seeds) grown by the hydrothermal process on different substrates: (a) polystyrene foil, (b) polyethylene foil, and (c) Si wafer.
Energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of the ZnO arrays grown on polystyrene for using ZnO seeds.
TEM image of ZnO arrays grown on polystyrene with ZnO seeds. The inset is an electron-diffraction pattern taken on one of the nanowires, which shows that the nanowire has single-crystal structure with growth direction along  axis.
(a) Raman spectrum of aligned ZnO nanowires taken at room temperature. The excitation source was an Ar-ion laser at . (b) Cathodoluminescence of ZnO nanowires measured at both room temperature and . The electron energy was .
SEM images of patterned ZnO nanowire arrays grown in an aqueous solution using ZnO seeds. The patterns were defined by a standard microfabrication lift-off process.
Field-emission current–voltage curve taken on short (, solid squares) and long (, open squares) ZnO nanowire arrays which were grown for 2 and , respectively. The average diameters of the nanowires are and for the short and long nanowires, respectively.
Fowler–Nordheim plots of field emission from ZnO nanowire arrays grown on polystyrene (open squares) and polyethylene (solid squares) foils with Au bottom electrodes and a Si wafer (open circles). All of the substrates were spin coated with diameter ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO nanowires have an average diameter about and height of .
(a) Field-emission curve from ZnO arrays coated with Au thin films of different thickness. (b) Emission threshold fields at a current of vs the thickness of the Au thin film.
Backscattered electron image of gold-coated ZnO nanowires. The Au clusters can be easily identified as the bright spots.
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