X-ray diffraction of ZnO films codoped with Mn and Sn grown at an oxygen partial pressure of and growth temperatures of 400, 500, and . The target was ZnO doped with 3% Mn and 0.01% Sn.
X-ray diffraction of an epitaxial ZnO film doped with 3% Mn and 0.1% Sn that was deposited at and . (a) an -rocking curve of the ZnO (002) peak with a FWHM of 0.5°. (b) in-plane scan of the ZnO (101) planes.
SQUID measurements for epitaxial ZnO:3% Mn films without (a) and with (b) Sn codoping. Notice that the film without Sn exhibits little or no hysteresis, whereas the film with Sn shows hysteresis.
A plot showing the dependence of the coercive field on Sn concentration at different SQUID measurement temperatures.
Magnetization measured at for epitaxial ZnO:3% Mn films that are codoped with 0.001% Sn, 0.01% Sn, 0.1% Sn, and no Sn. There appears to be an inverse correlation of the Sn content with the saturation magnetization.
Resistivity as a function of Sn content in codoped ZnO:3% Mn films.
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