XPS spectra for (a) and (b) for a sample with deposited on HF-cleaned Ge.
Hf coverage measured by RBS as a function of the number of ALD reaction cycles on HF-cleaned Ge substrates.
Growth per cycle from RBS in the first ten ALD reaction cycles for HF-cleaned Ge and oxygen-free Ge. The black line shows a trend line through the RBS data. This trend line is used for growth mode simulations.
LEIS spectra after atomic oxidation measured with (a) ions and (b) ions. The number of ALD reaction cycles is indicated in the figure.
LEIS surface fractions of Hf and Ge as a function of the ALD cycle number for atomic oxygen cleaned samples. The Ge surface fraction of the sample without is not exactly equal to 1, as the maximum Ge intensity was estimated from extrapolation (Sec. II D).
Evolution of the normalized TOFSIMS Hf and Ge intensity as a function of the number of ALD cycles.
TOFSIMS Hf, Cl, and Ge depth profiles for a layer deposited on an HF-cleaned Ge substrate. The Cl profile was measured in the negative ion polarity while the Hf and Ge profiles were measured in the positive ion polarity. The intensities can thus not be directly compared.
(a) Experimental MEIS spectrum (dots) and calculated yield (solid line) for a layer deposited on HF-cleaned Ge. The oxygen and chlorine peaks are shown enlarged in the insert. (b) The Hf, Ge, O, and Cl depth profiles used for the calculated yields in (a).
Cross-sectional TEM images of a (a) , (b) , and (c) layer deposited on a HF-cleaned Ge(100) substrate.
XRD spectra as a function of temperature for a layer deposited on HF-cleaned Ge.
Normalized LEIS Ge intensity (corresponding to surface fractions) as a function of the RBS Hf content, as compared to two-dimensional growth and random deposition.
Experimental TOFSIMS decay of the Ge signal as compared to the theoretical decay for two-dimensional growth [ with ].
XPS and MEIS thickness (nm). * not measured.
Density of layers deduced from the TEM thickness (Fig. 9) and the RBS Hf coverage (Fig. 2).
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