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Atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide on germanium substrates
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10.1063/1.1856221
/content/aip/journal/jap/97/6/10.1063/1.1856221
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/6/10.1063/1.1856221

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

XPS spectra for (a) and (b) for a sample with deposited on HF-cleaned Ge.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Hf coverage measured by RBS as a function of the number of ALD reaction cycles on HF-cleaned Ge substrates.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Growth per cycle from RBS in the first ten ALD reaction cycles for HF-cleaned Ge and oxygen-free Ge. The black line shows a trend line through the RBS data. This trend line is used for growth mode simulations.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

LEIS spectra after atomic oxidation measured with (a) ions and (b) ions. The number of ALD reaction cycles is indicated in the figure.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

LEIS surface fractions of Hf and Ge as a function of the ALD cycle number for atomic oxygen cleaned samples. The Ge surface fraction of the sample without is not exactly equal to 1, as the maximum Ge intensity was estimated from extrapolation (Sec. II D).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Evolution of the normalized TOFSIMS Hf and Ge intensity as a function of the number of ALD cycles.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

TOFSIMS Hf, Cl, and Ge depth profiles for a layer deposited on an HF-cleaned Ge substrate. The Cl profile was measured in the negative ion polarity while the Hf and Ge profiles were measured in the positive ion polarity. The intensities can thus not be directly compared.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Experimental MEIS spectrum (dots) and calculated yield (solid line) for a layer deposited on HF-cleaned Ge. The oxygen and chlorine peaks are shown enlarged in the insert. (b) The Hf, Ge, O, and Cl depth profiles used for the calculated yields in (a).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Cross-sectional TEM images of a (a) , (b) , and (c) layer deposited on a HF-cleaned Ge(100) substrate.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

XRD spectra as a function of temperature for a layer deposited on HF-cleaned Ge.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Normalized LEIS Ge intensity (corresponding to surface fractions) as a function of the RBS Hf content, as compared to two-dimensional growth and random deposition.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Experimental TOFSIMS decay of the Ge signal as compared to the theoretical decay for two-dimensional growth [ with ].

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

XPS and MEIS thickness (nm). * not measured.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Density of layers deduced from the TEM thickness (Fig. 9) and the RBS Hf coverage (Fig. 2).

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/content/aip/journal/jap/97/6/10.1063/1.1856221
2005-03-07
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide on germanium substrates
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/6/10.1063/1.1856221
10.1063/1.1856221
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