A schematic of the laser processing setup at the Center for Electro-Optics at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.
Images of the damage structures created on the lithium niobate substrates. (a) A SEM image of the array of surface damage spots using 5 laser pulses per damage spot. (b) An optical microscope image of the laser processed area used for spectroscopy and XRD analysis. (c): An optical microscope image of an array of surface damage structures used for TEM analysis.
(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the lithium niobate sample during FIB membrane preparation. The image was taken with the sample tilted 52° from top surface. Individual damage features from both the surface and subsurface features are apparent. (b) SEM of another membrane following lift-out and platinum welding to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) mounting grid. The difference in contrast in the membrane is a result of different thickness of the sample in these two areas.
Plots of depth of ablation versus power density for ablation of lithium niobate. (a) and (b) have an average logarithmic curve fitted. (a) Plot for single pulse ablation. (b) Plot for ablation. (c) Comparative plots for single and ablation.
SEM images of damage spots from the single pulse ablation arrays for energy densities as indicated.
SEM images of damage spots from the ablation arrays for energy densities as indicated.
Comparative plots for Raman shift for the laser treated and untreated areas on lithium niobate.
(a) Bright field TEM micrograph of a surface feature from the sample shown as Fig. 3(a). (b) and (c) TEM diffraction patterns from the areas indicated in (a). (d) EDS profile taken from the sample region indicated in (a). The circle denotes the area where oxygen deficiency is observed.
(a) Bright field TEM micrograph of the sample shown as Fig. 3(b) with both surface and subsurface features visible. (b): EDS profile taken from the sample region indicated in (a). The circle denotes the area where oxygen enrichment is observed.
(a) SEM image of a surface damage spot on lithium niobate. The energy density used was . (b) Physical processes involved in the modification of silicon using femtosecond laser pulses and their threshold fluences.
Description of Raman spectroscopy peaks for the laser unprocessed and processed areas on lithium niobate.
Auger spectroscopy results for the laser unprocessed and processed areas on lithium niobate.
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