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Simulating thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment
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10.1063/1.1863429
/content/aip/journal/jap/97/8/10.1063/1.1863429
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/8/10.1063/1.1863429

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Photograph of the STEX vessel. (b) Schematic of the ALE3D model domain.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Preignition characterized by slow thermochemical decomposition of HE. (b) Postignition illustrated with rapid burn propagation due to expanding hot product gases.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental and calculated ODTX times to thermal explosion vs inverse temperature for C-4.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Experimental and calculated ODTX times to thermal explosion vs inverse temperature for PBXN-109.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Curve fits of the measured rate of deflagration for both HEs.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Meshes used in the STEX simulation. The 1D mesh is generated from a slice along the center radial line of the 2D mesh on the right. The steel wall thickness is for C-4 (not shown), and for PBXN-109. In both, there exists a 6% gap (by volume) in C-4 system while a 5% gap is present in the PBXN-109 system.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Simulated mechanical response of confined C-4 in a 1D STEX model. The wall hoop strain is at location No. 2 in Fig. 6(a). The strain calculation agrees with the empty vessel result until about as chemical decomposition of HE becomes pronounced in the confined system.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Simulated mechanical response of confined PBXN-109 in a 1D STEX model. The wall hoop strain is at location No. 2 in Fig. 6(a). The strain calculation agrees with the empty vessel result until about as chemical decomposition of HE becomes pronounced in the confined system.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Calculated thermal response of confined C-4 in a 2D STEX experiment. The control and internal thermocouples are located at positions Nos. 1 and 6 in Fig. 1(b), respectively. The predicted ignition temperature is approximately lower than the STEX result. mesh is used.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Calculated thermal response of confined PBXN-109 in a 2D STEX experiment. The control and internal thermocouples are located at position Nos. 1 and 6 in Fig. 1(b), respectively. The predicted ignition temperature is higher than the STEX result. mesh is used.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Experimental and calculated hoop strain records from the slow heating to the thermal runaway phase for C-4.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Experimental and calculated hoop strain records from the slow heating to the thermal runaway phase for PBXN-109.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

The effect of mass scaling refinement shown in thin-walled vessel test for C-4.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Experimental and calculated hoop strain records during the rapid explosive phase for PBXN-109. The origin of the measured record has been adjusted in both strain and time to overlay the two curves.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Chemical kinetics parameters for decomposition of C-4.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Chemical kinetics parameters for decomposition of PBXN-109 .

Generic image for table
Table III.

Constitutive parameters of C-4 and PBXN-109.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Constitutive parameters of 4130 steel and air.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Constants in the equations of shear modulus and yield stress.

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Comparison of explosion temperatures.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/97/8/10.1063/1.1863429
2005-03-31
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Simulating thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/97/8/10.1063/1.1863429
10.1063/1.1863429
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