The microstructure of the as-received Ti–6Al–4V alloy used in this study.
Initial XRD pattern taken on the Ti–6Al–4V plate prior to laser forming.
Schematic of straight-line laser bending of Ti–6Al–4V sheet: is sheet thickness, sheet width, sheet length, and laser spot diameter.
Flow chart of the thermal–microstructural–mechanical modeling approach.
SEM images of the cross section perpendicular to the scanning path. The HAZ and HAZ boundary were observed. Etched in Kroll’s reagent, , and scanning : (a) the HAZ and (b) microstructure difference across the HAZ boundary.
Microstructure at different locations in the HAZ along direction after laser scanning, and : (a) close to the scanning path (heat source), (b) far from the scanning path, and (c) further from the scanning path, and close to the HAZ boundary.
(Color online) The calculated thermal cycles at different locations along direction on the top of the HAZ as , from FEM thermal modeling of laser forming of Ti–6Al–4V alloy.
(Color online) The distribution of volume fraction of phase at the end of heating in the cross-section area perpendicular to scanning path only half of the area was modeled due to symmetry about : (a) , and (b) , .
(Color online) The calculated phase distribution after cooling, only half of the area was modeled due to symmetry about , and : (a) primary , (b) martensite , (c) secondary , and (d) phase.
(Color online) The comparison of numerically predicted bending angles with and without phase transformation (PT) consideration with experimentally obtained bending angles at various locations along scanning path .
(Color online) component of plastic strain at different locations along direction on both the top and bottom as , from FEM mechanical modeling of laser forming of Ti–6Al–V alloy: (a) and and (b) and . The time when cooling starts is defined as when the point at the scanning path (, , and ) reaches the peak temperature.
Chemical composition of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in wt. %.
Comparison of HAZ size between experimental and numerical results.
JMA kinetic parameters for Ti–6Al–4–V alloys used in the work (Ref. 12).
Calculated factors determining the intensities of the alpha (101) plane and the beta (110) plane.
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