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Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques
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10.1063/1.2146075
/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2146075
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2146075
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of an amplitude holographic exposure using linear polarization. The resulting polarization pattern is constant, with a sinusoidal intensity modulation. (b) Schematic illustration of a polarization holographic exposure using orthogonal and polarizations. The resulting polarization pattern varies spatially to create linear, elliptical, and circular polarization regions with constant intensity, (c) Schematic illustration of a polarization holographic exposure using right- and left-handed circular-polarized beams. The resulting polarization pattern is a spatially rotating linear polarization field with constant intensity. In all three cases is used to denote the grating pitch.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic illustration showing the liquid-crystal alignment created by two registered planar-periodic boundary conditions. The coordinate system shown here was used for expressing the director orientation in the free-energy equation. An optical polarizing microscopy image of this grating configuration is shown between crossed polarizers. An illustration also depicts the cross-sectional view of the periodic director orientation.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic illustration showing the liquid-crystal alignment created by planar-periodic and planar boundary conditions. An optical polarizing microscopy image of this grating configuration is shown between crossed polarizers. An illustration also depicts the cross-sectional view of the periodic director orientation showing the planar and competing right-handed and left-handed twist configurations with a line defect.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic illustration showing the liquid-crystal alignment created by planar-periodic and homeotropic boundary conditions. An optical polarizing microscopy image of this grating configuration is shown between crossed polarizers, An illustration also depicts the cross-sectional view of the periodic director orientation showing the various bend configurations.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

A plot of polarization dependence measuring the first-order diffraction intensity as a function of the incident linear polarization for each of the hybrid configurations where (gray circle) is the configuration formed from two registered planar-periodic boundary conditions, (white circle) is the hybrid configuration formed from planar-periodic and planar boundary conditions, and (black circle) is the hybrid configuration formed from planar-periodic and homeotropic boundary conditions. In this plot represents polarization and represents polarization.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A plot of first-order diffraction vs voltage for a grating formed from two registered planar-periodic boundary conditions; the threshold voltage occurs at (, ). The inset shows optical polarizing microscopy images of the registered planar-periodic boundary condition cell taken at 0, 2, 3, and .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

A plot of first-order diffraction vs voltage for a grating formed from planar-periodic and planar boundary conditions; the threshold voltage occurs at (, ). The inset shows optical polarizing microscopy images of the planar periodic-planar boundary condition cell taken at 0, 2, 3, and .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

A plot of first-order diffraction efficiency vs voltage for a grating formed from planar-periodic and homeotropic boundary conditions; this configuration exhibited a thresholdless voltage (, ). The inset shows optical polarizing microscopy images of the planar periodic-homeotropic boundary condition cell taken at 0, 2, 3, and .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Optical polarizing microscopy image of a liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) layer polymerized on a LPP-polarization-patterned substrate.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) A schematic representation of the liquid-crystal director orientation in a two-dimensional grating between parallel polarizers, arrows indicate director orientation on the alignment surfaces. (b) Schematic representation of the liquid-crystal director orientation in a two-dimensional grating between crossed polarizers. (c) Optical polarizing microscopy image of a two-dimensional grating between parallel polarizers. (d) Optical polarizing microscopy image of a two-dimensional grating between crossed polarizers. (e) Visible diffraction pattern created from two-dimensional polarization grating.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Plots of transmission vs voltage for a two-dimensional planar-periodic cell configuration (, ); the threshold voltage was .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

A plot of threshold voltage as a function of grating pitch for registered planar-periodic boundary conditions showing experimental data points and phenomenological model for . The inset shows the visible diffraction grating for , 7.5, 10, 12.5, and .

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/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2146075
2005-12-27
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2146075
10.1063/1.2146075
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