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Study of Cu diffusion in porous dielectrics using secondary-ion-mass spectrometry
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10.1063/1.2149501
/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2149501
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2149501
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy data plotted for Cu/mesoporous silica/Si capacitors. The porous silica films are of three different porosities and the diffusion of Cu occurs after bias-temperature-stressing conditions of and for . The concentration of Cu at the interface is shown in Fig. 6.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the domain cell used for the simulation of in a porous dielectric.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Contour plots of concentration in a porous solid. The reduced cross-sectional area available in the solid as a result of increasing porosity decreases the apparent diffusivity and penetration depth. The modeling results use the following parameters: and , .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of constant-electric-field modeling results with SIMS measurements. The simulations are not consistent with the experimental data but describe well the penetration depth of in the dielectric. A variable electric field must be considered. The modeling results use the following parameters: and .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Contour plots of concentration in a porous solid considering the effect of the transport of such ions on the external electric field. (b) Cross-sectional plots along . The transport of ions create space-charge regions that balance the external electric field, the ions pileup near the Cu/dielectric interface. The modeling results use the following parameters: and , .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The concentration of ions at the Cu/dielectric interface decreases exponentially with porosity. The open circle for dense plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) is from Willis and Lang (Ref. 5) and the closed circles are our data for porous silica.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy data plotted for Cu/mesoporous silica/Si capacitors. The porosity of the dielectric is 18%, and the diffusion of Cu occurs after bias-temperature-stressing conditions of and .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The concentration of ions at the Cu/dielectric interface decreases with time, indicating a chemical reaction at that interface.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulation results for the concentration of ions at the Cu/dielectric interface using Eq. (12) to describe a chemical reaction. The concentration increases initially then decreases as reactants are consumed. The modeling results use the following parameters: , , and , with the initial values of shown.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2149501
2005-12-27
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Study of Cu diffusion in porous dielectrics using secondary-ion-mass spectrometry
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/12/10.1063/1.2149501
10.1063/1.2149501
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