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Deposition of microcrystalline silicon prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition: The influence of the deposition parameters on the material properties and solar cell performance
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10.1063/1.1957128
/content/aip/journal/jap/98/2/10.1063/1.1957128
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/2/10.1063/1.1957128

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Substrate temperature as a function of the heater temperature for different filament temperatures , three or four filaments, and additional process gases at a pressure of 5 Pa.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Deposition rates as a function of the silane concentration SC for different substrate temperatures with three filaments at a filament temperature of if not otherwise noted. Two filaments were used at . The deposition pressure was 5 Pa for all films.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Deposition rates as a function of the filament temperature and substrate temperature . The silane concentration is 5%.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Raman intensity ratio as a function of the silane concentration SC evaluated from Raman spectra for different substrate temperatures . (a) shows the results for , (b) shows the results for .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Infrared absorption spectra of -Si:H films prepared at with different SC. The individual spectra are shifted for clarity.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Infrared absorption spectra of -Si:H films close to the transition to -Si:H-growth prepared with different substrate temperatures between 185 and 450 °C. The individual spectra are shifted for clarity.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Hydrogen content as a function of the Raman intensity ratio of films prepared at different substrate temperatures .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Microstructure factor as a function of the Raman intensity ratio of -Si:H films prepared at different substrate temperatures .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Optical absorption measured by PDS of films prepared (a) at with different silane concentrations between 3% and 10% and (b) at different near the transition to amorphous growth.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Spin densities measured by ESR vs Raman intensity ratio for samples prepared at various substrate temperatures .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Dark and photoconductivities (full symbols) and (open symbols) of material prepared at various as a function of the Raman intensity ratio . The upper graph shows the resulting photosensitivities .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Double logarithmic plot of the deposition rates as a function of the deposition pressure for constant silane concentrations (, 3%, and 6%) at and three filaments (open symbols) and at and two filaments (+) and for -Si:H near the -Si:H/a-Si:H transition for two different filament temperatures (full symbols). The substrate temperature was 220 °C for all samples.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Raman intensity ratio as a measure of the crystallinity vs SC for different deposition pressures and a filament temperature of (a) and (b) .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Infrared absorption spectra of -Si:H films prepared with different deposition pressure between 3 and 20 Pa at . The individual spectra are shifted vertically for clarity.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Hydrogen content as a function of the crystallinity of films prepared with different at .

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Microstructure factor as a function of the Raman intensity ratio of the -Si:H films prepared with different deposition pressures at .

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Optical absorption measured by PDS of -Si:H films prepared near the transition to amorphous growth with different at and .

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Electrical parameters of 1--thick solar cells prepared with filament temperatures of and at a substrate temperature of and , respectively as a function of SC. (a) efficiency , (b) open circuit voltage , (c) fill factor FF and (d) short circuit current-density . Lines are guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

parameters of (closed symbols) and (open symbols) solar cells prepared with a HW layer at and , respectively. (a) efficiency , (b) open circuit voltage , (c) fill factor FF, and (d) short circuit current-density . Lines are guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

parameters of solar cells prepared with different and at as a function of the open circuit voltage . The short circuit current-density (top) and fill factor FF (bottom), measured under AM 1.5 illumination with an og590 filter, is displayed for solar cells prepared at on the left and on the right. Lines are guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Dark parameters of solar cells prepared at different and at . Dark saturation current-density on the left and diode quality factor on the right are shown as a function of the open circuit voltage . Lines are guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Open circuit voltages of solar cells as a function of the Raman intensity ratio prepared with various and at substrate temperatures of (open symbols) and (⊕⊞).

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

Ratio of silane radicals to atomic hydrogen produced at the filament vs the substrate temperature . The data points have been calculated with Eq. (7) and the experimentally observed silane concentration of the -Si:H/-Si:H transition.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

(a) Open circuit voltages and (b) short circuit current densities of solar cells as a function of the Raman intensity ratio with layers prepared by HWCVD and PECVD.

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

Open circuit voltage normalized by the diode ideality factor as a function of the dark saturation current-density for the solar cells of Fig. 20, assuming . The line gives the fit to Eq. (9).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Reaction-rate constants and reaction enthalpy of important gas phase reactions obtained from PECVD for a gas temperature of 500 K.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Fraction of atomic hydrogen, silane concentration at the -Si:H/-Si:H transition, and ratio of hydrogen atoms and silane molecules near the filament for and 1800 °C.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/98/2/10.1063/1.1957128
2005-07-25
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Deposition of microcrystalline silicon prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition: The influence of the deposition parameters on the material properties and solar cell performance
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/2/10.1063/1.1957128
10.1063/1.1957128
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