(a) Typical current density vs voltage curve of a 57-nm-thick film with Pt electrodes. (b) curve under positive and negative biases.
curves of a 57-nm-thick film plotted in logarithmic scale.
Variation of the curve of the high-resistance state with the measurement temperature in the voltage region with linear conduction.
curves of samples in the low-resistance state at measurement temperatures of (a) 50, (b) 70, and (c) 110 °C.
Retention behavior of samples in the low- and high-resistance states, respectively. The resistance of both states increases with time even at room temperature.
Variation in the resistance of the (a) low- and (b) high-resistance states as a function of the film thickness measured at 0.5 V.
Conductivity mapping results of the (a) low- and (b) high-resistance state films, using HVAFM. The bright spots represent the conducting spots.
Distribution of the number of conducting spots as a function of the current at each spot for the (a) low- and (b) high-resistance states measured by HVAFM. The inset figures show the rectified distributions after subtracting the most probable current.
curve in logarithmic scale of a typical nonconducting, a conducting spot of the low-resistance state, and a conducting spot of the high-resistance state.
Schematic of the multiple effect for the (a) 1ow-resistive state and (b) high-resistive state. (c) shows a schematic of the convolution effect for the high-resistance state considering the larger tip-surface interaction area in the case of APAFM.
Distribution of the number of conducting spots as a function of the current at each spot for the (a) low- and (b) high-resistance states measured by APAFM. The inset figures show the rectified distributions afer subtracting the most probable current.
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