Schematic of the experimental setup for particle synthesis with the reactant delivery system, the diffusion flame reactor, the quenching nozzle, and the glass fiber filter.
Raman spectrum of a commercially available (Aldrich) rutile-anatase micropowder mixture.
Correlation between Raman peak ( mode) shift (a) and width (b) and crystal size of nanoparticles from Group .
Comparison of Raman peak shift ( mode) for nanoparticles from Group , , , and .
Comparison of Raman peak width ( mode) for nanoparticles from Group , , , and .
Raman peak shift ( mode) for nanoparticles (group and ), showing the contribution of size confinement and substoichiometry effects.
Contribution of substoichiometry to the Raman shift ( mode) of nanoparticles as a function of flow ratio.
Dispersion curves used for the anatase mode in the phonon confinement model by Bersani et al. [solid line, Eq. (4), Ref. 18], by Ivanda et al. [dashed line, Eq. (5), Ref. 20], and in the current work [point line, Eq. (6)].
Comparison between experimental data (Raman peak shift) and computed results of 3D, 2D, and 1D phonon confinement models presented in this work for nanoparticles (group ).
Comparison between experimental data (Raman peak width) and computed results of 3D, 2D, and 1D phonon confinement models presented in this work for nanoparticles (group ).
Raman peaks shifts and mode assignments for the rutile an anatse phase, according to Refs. 9 and 12, respectively. (a) Rutile; (b) anatase.
Synthesis parameters and structural data for the titanium oxide nanoparticles analyzed in this work: burner-to-nozzle distance (BND), oxygen flow, TTIP flow, BET size, XRD size, and anatase fraction (as measured by XRD).
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