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Modeling and design of an optimized liquid-crystal optical phased array
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10.1063/1.2071450
/content/aip/journal/jap/98/7/10.1063/1.2071450
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/7/10.1063/1.2071450

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A liquid-crystal optical phased array.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A LC OPA with ideal director configuration.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Isopotential line in an ECB LC OPA for cell thickness . for adjacent isopotential lines. (a) Electrode and gap between . (b) Electrode and gap between .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Basic configuration of an ECB LC OPA with 1D line-shape electrodes. (a) Rubbing direction perpendicular to the electrode direction. (b) Rubbing direction parallel to the electrode direction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The director configuration of an ECB LC OPA in an eight-level stairlike blazed grating configuration. , , , , , , and . Cell thickness , electrode , gap between , and . (a) Rubbing direction perpendicular to the electrode direction. No twist structure is present. (b) Rubbing direction parallel to the electrode direction. Twist structure is present due to the fringing fields.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The out-of--plane twist director configuration of an ECB LC OPA in an eight electrode blazed grating configuration, with initial perturbation of out-of-plane twist azimuthal angle of 1°. , , , , , , and . Cell thickness , electrode , gap between , rubbing direction perpendicular to the electrode direction, and . (a) Equilibrium director configuration in the plane. (b) component of such out-of-plane twist.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The simulated phase profile and far-field diffraction pattern of a reflective LC OPA. The segmented horizontal lines in (a) is the desired phase profile of a stairlike blazed grating. The continuous line is the simulated phase profile. Here , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , cell thickness , and . (a) Phase profile of the LC OPA. (b) Far-field diffraction peaks.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The diffraction efficiency of LC OPA as a function of spatial resolution. Here , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , and .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The phase profile of LC OPA before voltage optimization. Here , , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , and .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The bias voltage to correct for fringing-field-induced phase error in high-resolution LC OPA. Discrete data points are from the optimization process from simulation. The continuous line is the seventh-order polynomial fit of the data points. The coefficients for the seventh-order polynomial are: , , , , , , , and .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The optimized phase profile and far-field diffraction pattern of a wide-angle LC OPA. Simulation parameters used here are , , , , , , and . Cell thickness , electrode width , and gap between . (a) Optimized phase profile by adjusting voltage profile on the eight electrodes. (b) Corresponding far-field diffraction pattern.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Comparison of diffraction efficiency as function of cell thickness for a LC OPA without voltage optimization and with optimization. Simulation parameters used here are , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , and .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Comparison of diffraction efficiency as a function of diffraction angle for different cases: , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , and .

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

A LC OPA with ideal director configuration.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The stability of ECB structure in high-resolution LC OPA as a function of pretilt angle. : The final equilibrium director configuration has no significant out-of--plane twist component. : The final equilibrium director configuration has significant out-of--plane twist component.

Generic image for table
Table III.

The diffraction efficiency as a function of electrode spacing of the LC OPA. Here eight-electrode LC OPA is considered. , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , cell thickness , 3.0, and , and .

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Diffraction efficiency as a function of cell thickness. Here , , , , , , , electrode , gap between , and .

Generic image for table
Table V.

Voltage optimization process on each electrode of the LC OPA.

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Comparison of wide-angle properties of different LC OPAs.

Generic image for table
Table VII.

The diffraction efficiency of a LC OPA for different electrode configurations. Here , , , , , , , cell thickness , and .

Generic image for table
Table VIII.

The diffraction efficiency of a LC OPA with different elastic constants. Here , , , , cell thickness , electrode , gap between , and .

Generic image for table
Table IX.

Diffraction efficiency of a LC OPA for different pretilt angles. Note that pretilt smaller than 3° may not be a stable structure.

Generic image for table
Table X.

The diffraction efficiency for steering to and diffraction orders.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/98/7/10.1063/1.2071450
2005-10-10
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Modeling and design of an optimized liquid-crystal optical phased array
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/98/7/10.1063/1.2071450
10.1063/1.2071450
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