A typical AFM image of the topography of the MgO barrier.
(a) HRTEM micrograph of the multilayer stack, showing polycrystalline CoFe FM electrodes and MgO tunnel barrier. Lattice fringes can be resolved for all layers except for the CoFeB. (b) and (c) Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the regions of the HRTEM image indicated by “1” and “2.” Lattice planes in the MgO barrier can be distinguished, with a predominant  orientation.
Easy axis major (a) and minor (b) magnetization loops of the continuous multilayer stack.
The variation of TMR (a) and product (b) for electrode alignment vs Mg film thickness and oxidation time .
TMR minor loops, measured at RT, for junctions, with the magnetic field aligned to the long axis of the element (exchange bias direction) and a bias voltage of 20 mV ( and ).
(a) Current-bias and dynamic conductance-bias characteristics for electrode alignment. The latter is fitted to the model of Brinkman for tunneling. (b) The variation of TMR as a function of bias.
The variation of TMR (엯) and product for (◻) and AP (∎) electrode alignment as a function of the annealing temperature, , for annealing time . Lines are guides to the eye.
The variation of TMR (엯) and product for (◻) and AP (∎) electrode alignment as a function of the annealing time, , for annealing temperature . Lines are guides to the eye.
(a) Switching field asteroid acquired by magneto-optical Kerr effect for elliptical shaped elements of . (b) Easy axis hysteresis minor loop.
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