SEM images of the samples grown with condition I with (a) showing the jellyfishlike nanowire bunches, and (b) showing one typical spherelike nanowire bunch.
SEM images of the typical jellyfishlike nanowire bunches grown with condition I, [(a)–(d)] Showing different jellyfishlike nanowire bunches. (e) Higher-resolution image of the head of a jellyfishlike nanowire bunch. A core and nanowires with nonuniform diameters can be observed. (f) Higher-resolution image of the arrowed area shown in (b). Nanowire coalescence can be observed.
Typical SEM images of the nanowire bunches obtained with condition II. (a) Showing many nanowire bunches growing under nanoparticles. (b) Higher-resolution image of one nanowire bunch and one nanoparticle shown in (a). Branching growth can be observed. (c) One Chinese-lanternlike nanowire bunch grown under one nanoparticle. Both branching growth and coalescence are obvious. (d) Another Chinese-lanternlike nanowire structure. From its right side, a queue or ropelike nanowire bunch can be observed.
Typical octopuslike nanowire bunches obtained with condition III. (a) Showing many octopuslike nanowire bunches. (b) Higher-resolution image of one bunch. It can be observed that the nanowires are not uniform in diameter. (c) Higher-resolution image of one octopus nanowire bunch with spotted nanowires.
TEM images of the materials grown with condition I. (a) Lower magnification images of the nanowires showing that some nanowires have a black core while others do not. (b) The core is not continous inside the nanowires. (c) Higher-resolution images of the crystalline core and the amorphous shell in (b). (d) Higher-resolution image of one amorphous nanowire without a core.
SEM images of the samples grown with omitting one of the three—, Ga, and —while keeping other parameters the same with condition I. (a) SEM images of the materials grown without . Ga catalyzing Si nanowire growth was clearly observed. (b) The materials grown without Ga. Si nanowires and particles containing Ni, Si, and O were observed. (c) The materials grown without . Without , the morphology is different, suggesting that plays a role in the jellyfishlike nanowire bunch formation.
Three growth conditions used in our experiments.
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