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Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg
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10.1063/1.2175466
/content/aip/journal/jap/99/5/10.1063/1.2175466
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/99/5/10.1063/1.2175466

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color) (a) Color separation in a metal-halide (MH) lamp burner. (b) Schematic view of a MH lamp; diffusion and convection of atoms and molecules are indicated by arrows.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Spectrum of a metal-halide lamp containing Hg as a buffer gas and the additive . The saturated lines are Hg.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The ASDF of two subsequent atomic stages of one element (e.g., Dy) for a plasma in LTE. At the transition from the atomic to the ionic system the state density shows a discontinuity. This is the so-called Saha jump and depends on the electron temperature and density [see Eq. (6)]. Note that there are two ways to indicate the energy position of an atomic level the excitation energy and the ionization potential . Going to the left along the energy axis, will increase, whereas will decrease (Ref. 5).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Setup consisting of a Czerny-Turner 1 m monochromator, an image rotator, a beam splitter, and a ST-2000 CCD camera. The CCD camera records the 2D image of the light after being dispersed into different wavelengths by the grating of the monochromator. The wavelengths of the various atomic and ionic transitions are found on the horizontal scale. The image rotator optically rotates the image of the burner by 90° so it is projected horizontally onto the entrance slit, yielding a CCD image of the cross section of the burner on the vertical scale.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Lateral intensity profiles of the atomic (at 565 nm) and ionic (at 430 nm) Dy. The profiles are symmetrized with regard to the axis of the arc. The lines are measured 3 mm above the bottom electrode; the lamp power is 100 W.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Calibrated radial intensity profiles of the atomic (at 565 nm) and ionic (at 430 nm) Dy. The lines are measured 3 mm above the bottom electrode; the lamp power is 100 W.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) ASDF for Dy in the wavelength range of 400–700 nm. Emission lines are measured at the center of the lamp 3 mm above the electrode. These results have been Abel inverted. The atomic and ionic transition probabilities are taken from Wickliffe and Lawler11 and Kurucz and Bell (Ref. 9).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

ASDF for Hg emission lines that are measured at the center of the lamp 3 mm above the electrode. The ionization potential of Hg is at 10.44 eV. The ground state density is calculated from . The intensity profile of the 407.8 nm line, with (Ref. 11), at has been Abel inverted.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Temperature profiles for different radial positions 3 mm above the bottom electrode. The lamp power is 100 W. The transition probabilities were taken from Wickliffe and Lawler (Ref. 11).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The ratio of ions for different radial positions. The total ionic density is calculated by combining the expression for [Eq. (6)] with the expression for [Eq. (9)]. is found by means of the extrapolation of the ASDF of Dy and Hg at different radial positions.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (1) electron density determined from the Hg ASDF. Total atomic (2) and ionic densities (3) for Dy. Atomic (4) and ionic (5) ground state densities for Dy.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

The ratio between the ionic ground state density calculated using the value for , combined with the electron density calculated using the Hg density (assuming ), and the ionic ground state density calculated from the extrapolation of the ASDF for the Dy ion.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

values used for the calculation of the density of the atomic Dy. values and relative errors are from Wickliffe and Lawler (Ref. 11). Values from Kurucz and Bell (Ref. 9) are based on data provided by either Gorshkov et al. (Ref. 13), where the relative error is estimated to be less than 50%, or by Meggers et al. (Ref. 14), from which the values are determined from the estimated intensity.

Generic image for table
Table II.

values used for the calculation of the density of the ionic Dy. values and relative errors are from Wickliffe and Lawler (Ref. 11). Values from Kurucz and Bell (Ref. 9) are based on data provided by either Gorshkov et al. (Ref. 13), where the relative error is estimated to be less than 50%, or by Meggers et al. (Ref. 14), from which the values are determined from the estimated intensity.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/99/5/10.1063/1.2175466
2006-03-02
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/99/5/10.1063/1.2175466
10.1063/1.2175466
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