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The impact of the density and type of reactive sites on the characteristics of the atomic layer deposited films
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

XRF W yield for films as a function of ALD cycles on thermally grown (◻), PECVD (◇), SiC (▵), chemical (∎), (엯), and H–Si (●) substrates in the transient regime (a) and in the linear regime (b). 5% is considered as an upper limit for errors due to repeatability of the ALD process and XRF measurement count statistics.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Scheme of the surface reaction of with .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

TEM image of a 50 ALD cycle film deposited on thermal .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

TOF-ERD chemical composition of ALD films deposited at on thermal (∎), PECVD (◻), and Si–H (●) substrates in a ternary diagram (a) and in a carbon: tungsten vs nitrogen: tungsten graph (b). The data corresponding to a film deposited at on thermal is presented for reference35 (엯).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

TDS spectra for 50, 80, and ALD films deposited on thermal . Masses of 29 (a) and 46 (b) are assigned to and , respectively.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

EFTEM carbon concentration profile of a film on thermal indicates a carbon rich layer of near the interface.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

XRR reflectogram (a) and EDP (b) derived from the XRR reflectogram for (A) and 30–200 cycle films on top of (B–F) and H–Si (G). The second drop in the XRR reflectogram, from which the density of the layers is extracted, is indicated with an arrow.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Density for films as a function of ALD thickness on (a) PECVD (엯) and (b) SiC (◻) as derived from XRR measurements and using a layer model (● and ∎) where and are the measured density and thickness and , , , and are the densities and thicknesses of the transient and bulk regimes, respectively.


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Table I.

Substrate preparation conditions.

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Table II.

Thickness, density, and roughness measured by XRR for ALD films deposited on PECVD , SiC, and H–Si.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Carbon and tungsten losses measured by ERD for ALD films .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The impact of the density and type of reactive sites on the characteristics of the atomic layer deposited WNxCy films