U-shaped spin-valve sensor transfer curve. Inset: sensing unit comprised of the spin valve within a U-shaped aluminum current line.
Output of an array of sensors vs particle (squares), and bead (triangles) concentrations. Outputs are shown for signal (11 sensors; filled symbol) and reference sensors (five sensors; empty symbol). Error bars correspond to standard deviations.
Sensor output in function of the percent (%) coverage of the sensor surface with particles (squares) and microspheres (triangles). The continuous and dashed curves result from a model described in the text for the sensor output. The dotted line translates the present system detection limit. Error bars correspond to standard deviations from experimental data and the resulting estimation of particle numbers.
Noise spectra for a U-shaped spin-valve sensor in the linear regime and with a sense current of . A fit is shown for the noise and thermal contributions and the calculated thermal background is also displayed.
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