Cross section (a) and a simplified thermal diagram (b) of a typical SFQ-qubit integrated circuit glued to a massive thermal sink.
Electron-phonon coupling experiment (see details in the text). (a) Transition of a Mo resistor from superconducting to normal state and from normal to superconducting state at . (b) Dependence of on bath temperature . (c) Dependence of heating power on .
Silicon wafer with SINIS heaters and thermometers used for the overheating measurements.
Measured temperature on the surface of a silicon substrate as a function of the heating power at (squares) and (circles) distances from the pointlike heater. The solid line represents the dependence of temperature on heating power at distance from the heater calculated from Eq. (17) with absorbtion coefficient . The results of the solution of Eq. (18) with the boundary conditions (19) for are shown as dotted and dashed lines.
The sketch of the shunt resistor with cooling fins of different geometries.
Optimization of thermal design for the circuits of different complexities. Designs with both circuits mounted at the same holder: (a) SFQ and quantum circuits on the same Si chip, (b) substrate with improved thermal insulation between two parts, and (c) two-chip solution. Separate cooling of circuits with different temperatures and power dissipations: two chips with independent cooling connected by rf lines (d) and inductively (or capacitively) coupled (e).
Layout and equivalent circuit of the measured comparator.
Temperature dependence of the width of the gray zone of the measured comparator. The squares and dashed line are experimental data and theoretical prediction for thermal limit, respectively.
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