A typical SEM photomicrograph of the morphology of a thin film having 35% porosity.
XPS spectral evolution of nanostructured Si thin films with various porosities: (a) after and (b) after , in air at room temperature.
(a) The relative concentration as a function of air oxidation time, at room temperature, for various porosities. (b) The time shifts used for the construction of a superposed plot of all the data in Fig. 2(a).
Calculated oxidation shell thickness, as a function of oxidation time, for various porosities.
Oxidation shell thicknesses, determined from deconvolution data, as a function of porosities, (a) for and , and (b) for , with a comparison to the prediction of Eq. (5).
(a) binding energy shifts as a function of the value of in obtained from XPS peak intensities with ★ indicating the response of a nonporous film, thick, deposited in our laboratory; (b) the value of in determined from peak intensity ratio, as a function of porosity.
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