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The atomic scale origin of wear on mica and its contribution to friction
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17.STM100 and AFM100 from RHK Technology, Troy, MI.
18.Tip radii were measured by imaging the tip using a silicon grating with ridges (apex radius ∼10 nm) from NT-MDT.
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20.J. Hu, X.-d. Xiao, D. F. Ogletree, and M. Salmeron, Surf. Sci. 327, 358 (1995).
21.Although very unusual, steps with a height of 2.5 Å were found by helium scattering on mica cleaved in UHV. See G. Brusdeylins and D. Schmicker, Surf. Sci. 331-333, 237 (1995).
22.The surface potential of the “S2” layer was found to be 20 mV lower than the “S1” layer, which is another indication of a significantly different structure.
23.The activation barrier for breaking a Si–O bond is lowered substantially, thanks to the energy gain from simultaneously formed SiOH to ∼1 eV, which is a reasonable value regarding the energy balance for these reactions.
24.The relative humidity RH was determined by measuring the partial pressure of water inside the chamber with a capacitance gauge.
25.L. Xu, A. Lio, J. Hu, D. F. Ogletree, and M. Salmeron, J. Phys. Chem. 102, 540 (1998).
26.Since the cantilever is mounted at an angle of ∼ from the sample surface, the tip moves by ∼60 nm, as the load is increased (line-by-line) to its maximum value. For a description of the friction vs load data analysis, see M. D. Mowery, S. Kopta, D. F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, and C. E. Evans, Langmuir 15, 5118 (1999).
27.A similar model was used in J. T. Dickinson, N.-S. Park, M.-W. Kim, and S. C. Langford, Tribol. Lett. 3, 69 (1997) to explain tip induced dissolution of calcite in solution.
28.The residence time is given by the ratio of contact area and image area (400×400 , in this case) muliplied by the time required for an image (25.6 s, in this case):
29. where l is the Si–O bond length (1.5 Å), is the combined elastic modulus with values for poisson ratio and Young modulus E for a Si-tip GPa) and for mica GPa), k is the Boltzmann factor, T the temperature, and R the tip radius (35 nm used for calculation). based on the 2 Si–O bonds along the c-axis of the 2 tetrahedra per unit area.
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