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Volume 117, Issue 16, 22 October 2002
117(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1515320View Description Hide Description
Kinetics of vesicleadsorption on and surfaces was investigated for vesicle sizes from 25 to 200 nm. On nonruptured vesicles are adsorbed up to a critical coverage, after which spontaneous rupture and bilayer formation occurs in qualitatively the same manner for all vesicle sizes. On adsorption of nonruptured vesicles continues up to saturation. A comparison between the kinetics at low coverages on and where intact vesicles adsorb on both surfaces, reveals that the vesicles on are more flattened than nonruptured vesicles adsorbed on indicating a stronger vesicle-surface interaction on
117(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1515768View Description Hide Description
Whenever a quantum chemist extracts the eigenstate of an electronic Hamiltonian, he makes, consciously or not, a decision concerning the phase of the wave function. This is done for each calculated state at each nuclear position. Thus he defines a Born–Oppenheimer (BO) frame of reference. There is no absolute phase just as there is no absolute position or time in mechanics. This leads naturally to the question: What are the quantities which do not depend on the arbitrary phases, i.e., what are the BO invariants? In this article we identify BO invariants with respect to an arbitrary path in nuclear configuration space. We identify invariant electronic states along these paths and their Aharonov–Anandan geometric phases. For closed loops not passing through electronic energy degeneracies these invariant states are the BO adiabatic wave functions and the phases are the Berry phases. The results establish rigorous relations between the full nonadiabatic couplings matrix and the geometric phases.