The extended energy as defined in Eq. (10) for a simple fluid with . The total number of integration steps is 200 000.
Probability distribution of the volume fluctuations.
Power spectrum of the kinetic temperature for the simple fluid. The spectrum has been smoothed with a Savitsky–Golay filter.
Equilibration of the pressure when the system is prepared in a state far from equilibrium.
Autocorrelation of the pressure for the simple DPD fluid.
The bilayer model of Shillcock and Lipowsky. The dark beads represent the lipid head group and the light beads represent the carbons along the lipid tails.
Autocorrelation function of the instantaneous surface tension. The abscissas are in DPD time units. The full lines correspond to the extended system approach and the dashed line correspond to the Langevin piston. (a) Autocorrelation of . (b) Instantaneous surface tension . (c) Box dimension in the direction . (d) The linear dimension of the plane.
The nonbonded soft interactions from Ref. 13. The head bead is denoted by , the tail bead by , and the water bead by .
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