Normalized ionic (thick line) and valence electronic (thin line) density profiles normal to the liquid-vapor interfaces. The Mg, Al, and Si data are shifted upwards by 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 units. The insets highlight the region near the surface to enhance the valence electronic density oscillations.
Wavelength of the oscillations in the density profiles as a function of the Wigner-Seitz radius and , the radius of a sphere which on average contains one electron.
Valence electron-density profiles at the liquid-vapor interfaces. The continuous line is the self-consistent result, the dashed line represents the linear superposition of pseudoatomic densities, and the dotted line is the superposition of model densities without Friedel oscillations. The inset shows the projected pseudoatom electron densities (symbols) together with the fit to the model proposed in the text (lines).
Normalized ion and valence electron densities of liquid Al obtained by the superposition of several model densities of different widths .
Normalized ion profile and total (core valence) electron densities for the systems studied. The Mg, Al, and Si data are shifted upwards by 0.5, 1, and 1.5 units, respectively.
Thermodynamic states and simulation details.
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