Experimental x-ray diffraction data from liquid and its theoretical interpretation. (A) Experimental data are shown in circles and the best fit model is shown as a solid line. All components contributing to the theoretical model, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, and scattering from the capillary and air, are also shown. (B) Average radial distribution functions, , for . Those illustrated are , , and .
Temporal dependence of the experimental x-ray diffraction difference signal. (A) The experimental difference data for the time points , 20, 35, 60, 80, 100, 200, 450, 1000, and are plotted from , where is the time delay between multiphoton laser heating and the arrival of the x-ray probe. (B) The same data as in (A) but plotted with higher magnification from .
Temporal dependence of the thermal expansion of liquid following multiphoton excitation. For each time delays , 20, 35, 60, 80, 100, 200, 450, 1000, and , the degree of thermal expansion (circles) is determined from the best theoretical fit to the experimental data shown in Fig. 2. Curves modeling the thermal expansion of liquid are shown assuming either a Gaussian temporal dependence (solid line) or an exponential temporal dependence (dashed line).
Experimental and molecular dynamics studies of the changes in electron density within heated liquid . (A) The experimental data presented using the change in radial density representation, , for three time delays: , 80, and . The apparent (and nonphysical) increase in the electron density at a radius shorter than the effective radius of the molecule is an artifact of the normalization condition used. (B) The average change in radial distribution functions, , derived from molecular dynamics simulations of at 293 and for 0%, 0.6%, and 1.4% expansions. (C) As in (B) but showing . (D) As in (B) but showing . In (B)–(D) the corresponding are scaled by 0.02 and shown for comparison.
Temporal dependence of the experimental difference x-ray diffraction signal for short time delays. Data for the time points , 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2500, and are plotted from , where is the time delay between multiphoton laser heating and the arrival of the x-ray probe.
Temporal dependence of the experimentally determined fractional heating of liquid following multiphoton excitation. For each time delay , 250, 500, 1000, 2500, 10 000, and the degree of fractional heating is determined from the best theoretical fit to the experimental data shown in Fig. 2 or 5. The time point is taken as twice that observed experimentally at (see text for explanation). A curve modeling the release of heat into the bulk liquid according to Eq. (13) is shown as a solid line.
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