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Electronic properties of the interface between and anatase-phase single crystal and nanoparticulate surfaces: A photoemission study
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10.1063/1.2772249
/content/aip/journal/jcp/127/11/10.1063/1.2772249
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jcp/127/11/10.1063/1.2772249
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Core level spectra for the clean and CuI-dosed anatase (101) surface at different dosing intervals. (a) Ti core level spectra; (b) Cu core level spectra; and (c) I core level spectra.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Secondary electron energy distribution (SEED) spectra recorded from the anatase (101) surface before and after CuI dosing. CuI dosing intervals are the same as in Figs. 1(a)–1(c). The spectra were recorded while applying a negative bias of to the sample; this has been accounted for in aligning the spectra on a binding energy scale. The method used to determine the SEED edge position is described in the text and is shown in the figure (Ref. 34).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Valence band energy distribution curves (EDCs) of the anatase (101) surface before and after CuI dosing at different dosing intervals. For low coverages (dosing intervals of ), the spectra are normalized to the incident photon flux and are taken at the same dosing intervals as in Figs. 1(a)–1(c). For comparison, valence band EDCs recorded from a thick film of CuI ( thick) deposited on the anatase (101) surface and a CuI pellet are also shown in the same figure. Spectra were recorded at photon energy for the clean and CuI-dosed anatase (101) surfaces. For the CuI pellet, the spectrum was recorded at photon energy.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Determination of the valence band maximum (VBM) for the clean anatase (101) surface and for CuI. VBM is taken as the point where two extrapolated edges, one describing the background and the other describing a tangent drawn at the inflection point at the low binding energy region of the spectrum, intercept each other (Ref. 34). (a) VBM determination for the clean anatase (101) surface and (b) VBM determination for CuI, using a spectrum recorded from a thick film ( thick) of CuI deposited on anatase (101).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Band energy alignment at the heterojunction interface of single crystal anatase-phase (101) and , after CuI deposition (corresponding to around layer thickness, see text). The diagram is constructed using the experimentally observed core level binding energy shifts for the anatase substrate (Ti core level shift between the clean surface and CuI dose) and the CuI overlayer [I core level shift between CuI dose and a thick film of CuI on anatase ], the VBMs for clean anatase (101) and CuI determined by the method shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), and also using reported band gap values for anatase and CuI (Refs. 15, 16, 28, 44, and 47). The figure is not drawn to scale.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Core level spectra recorded for an as-presented nanoparticulate anatase thin film (of average particle size of ) before and after CuI dosing at different dosing intervals. (a) Ti core level spectra. A binomial smoothing routine has been applied (reducing the background noise level by around 30%). (b) I core level spectra.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Valence band EDCs for an as-presented nanoparticulate anatase thin film (of average particle size of ) before and after CuI dosing at different dosing intervals. Dosing intervals are as in Fig. 6.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

SEED spectra recorded for an as-presented nanoparticulate anatase thin film (of average particle size of ) before and after CuI dosing at different dosing intervals. Dosing intervals are as in Fig. 6. The spectra were recorded while applying a negative bias of to the sample; this has been accounted for in aligning the spectra on a binding energy scale. The method used to determine the SEED edge position is described in the text and is shown in the figure (Ref. 34).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Band energy alignment at the heterojunction interface for an as-presented nanoparticulate anatase-phase thin film (of average particle size of ) and . The diagram shows the alignment after CuI deposition (equivalent to around layer thickness if uniformly deposited, see text). The diagram is constructed using experimentally observed core level binding energy shifts for the anatase substrate (Ti core level shift between the clean surface and CuI dose) and the CuI overlayer [I core level shift between CuI dose and a thick film of CuI on anatase ], the VBMs for the as-presented nanoparticulate -anatase thin film (see text) and CuI [Fig 4(b)] and also using band gap values for the nanoparticulate anatase thin film (extrapolated, see text) and CuI (Refs. 15, 16, and 44). The figure is not drawn to scale.

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/content/aip/journal/jcp/127/11/10.1063/1.2772249
2007-09-18
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Electronic properties of the interface between p-CuI and anatase-phase n-TiO2 single crystal and nanoparticulate surfaces: A photoemission study
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jcp/127/11/10.1063/1.2772249
10.1063/1.2772249
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