banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The single-crystal, basal face of ice investigated with sum frequency generation
Rent this article for
View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color) Pictures of two ice crystal slices taken through crossed polarizers: (a) Crystal showing multiple domains with clearly visible grain boundaries. The step pattern in the upper right quadrant is due to hoppering from growth of a grain boundary. (b) A single-crystal specimen. The entire domain remains extinct as the crystal is rotated between cross polarizers, indicating that the axis is within 1° of the line of sight.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color) Conoscopic images of single-crystal ice samples. (a) The cross is located at the center of the concentric rings indicating that the axis is parallel to the viewing direction, perpendicular to the interface. (b) The cross is shifted to the upper-right corner indicating a miscut of about 5°. (The images are produced on a dark background due to the crossed polarizers; the dark background has been removed in order to show the image structure.)

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color) Etching pattern on the basal face clearly showing hexagonal features. The image corresponds to a or area. Each feature originates where a screw dislocation emerges at the surface. This image was taken on poor quality ice. SFG spectra were typically run on samples with a dislocation density less than .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SFG spectra of ice with three polarization combinations: (star), (half-diamond), and (half-circle) at . Inset: magnified to show structure.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Survey of the temperature dependence of the SFG signal: (star), (triangle), and (circle). (a) polarization and (b) polarization. Note that the free-OH (open star) is not drawn to scale; it is approximately 100 times weaker than the hydrogen-bonded region.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The peak intensity at in the polarization combination vs .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Signal as a function of infrared beam energy at the entrance window; polarization is . Spectra were run in the following order: (blue triangle), (green circle), (magenta forward triangle), (orange star), and return to (black diamond). Raising the infrared intensity from scales the intensity proportional to the infrared energy. The signal saturates and even diminishes from indicating saturation and nonlinearity. Nonlinearity continues with a beam energy of . Returning to after exposure to demonstrates that the higher energy infrared beam has introduced irreversible damage to the surface.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The single-crystal, basal face of ice Ih investigated with sum frequency generation