(Color online) Simultaneous acquisition of (a) HAS and (b) IRAS on Ru(0001) during CO dosing with . (c) Helium atom diffraction profile at the surface along the  azimuthal direction (incident wavevector of He beam is ).
(Color online) Simultaneous acquisition of HAS and IRAS during dosing with on [(a), (d), and (g)] Ru(0001), [(b), (e), and (h)] , and [(c), (f), and (i)] on .
(Color online) The line profile of the absorbance at (peak intensity of the OD stretching vibrational mode) as a function of dosing time. (Inverse solid triangle) ML. (Solid circle) ML. (Solid/open triangle) Two measurements at ML demonstrating the reproducibility.
(Color online) Simultaneous acquisition of (a) TPD and (b) HAS of from .
Typical IRAS spectra of ASW [(a) and (b)] and crystalline ice and (c) with ML. The spectra were normalized by the integral intensity of the absorbance.
(Color online) Simultaneous acquisition of HAS, ITPD, and IRAS from initially ML ASW is adsorbed on Ru(0001) at (left) and (right). During the period up to , the temperature increases from to the designed temperature with a heating rate of . The temperature is then held at the designated temperature. [(a) and (b)] Left axis shows the He beam intensity of the specular reflection (HAS) on a log scale, while the right axis shows (gray curve; black curve represents the fitting result, green and red curves show two components of .) [(c) and (d)] The desorption rate of from Ru(0001) (ITPD, gray curve; black curve represents average). [(e) and (f)] Total weighted absorbance (summation of integrated absorption of the fraction of ASW and that of CI) is shown in the left axis, while the right axis shows converted fraction of ASW to CI phase derived from the linear fit of IRAS result. [(g) and (h)] IRAS results in the range of OD stretching vibrational mode (see text). Each vertical dotted line represents the moment when conversion is achieved in (e) and (f).
(Color online) Similar series of data in Fig. 6 but conducted for the initially ASW films ( ML) adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, the vibrational spectrum in the range of the CO stretching vibrational mode is shown in (i) and (j). The integral intensities of the CO absorption peak around and are shown in (k) and (l), respectively.
(Color online) Converted fraction from ASW ( ML) to CI estimated from IRAS fitting analysis. (a) Result at is analyzed by the Avrami-type equation (see text), where the equation with well reproduce our result. (b) Results at various temperatures are shown as a function of isothermal annealing time. Solid curves are the calculated results based on the BB-model [Backus and Bonn model (Ref. 93)] (see text).
(Color online) Arrhenius plot of the ASW ( ML) crystallization time (100% conversion time) derived from IRAS results. The results on Ru(0001), on , on , and on are shown. The moment of the exposure of the first water layer to the vacuum is also shown by the solid diamond (see text).
(Color online) Schematic diagram of the ASW ( ML) crystallization on Ru(0001) and on . The comparison of the crystallization temperature is shown. [(a)–(d)] Lower crystallization temperature. [(e)–(h)] Higher crystallization temperature.
The kinetic parameters of bulk nucleation rate and growth rate (ML/s) derived from the fitting analysis (see text). The desorption rate (ML/s) used in the calculation is also shown which is estimated from the time variation of the IRAS total absorbance.
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