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Contact measurement of internal fluid flow within poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) gels
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Indenter geometries used in the experiments.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Photographs and schematic illustrations of the gel structure for pNIPAM above and below the critical temperature.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The probe tack apparatus.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Load and displacement histories for a typical experiment.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Load-displacement relationship illustrating the onset of nonlinear response for large using a radius circular punch and a pNIPAM gel: (a) , ; and (b) , . The boxes on the graph indicate the regimes in which the oscillatory experiments were conducted (Fig. 4). The dashed lines represent the linear response given by Eqs. (1) and (2).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Idealized relaxation behavior of an elastic gel under compression.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Oscillatory load-displacement behavior at for a pNIPAM gel, using a circular punch with : (a) 22, and (b) .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Values of the shear modulus obtained from application of Eq. (13) to data obtained from the oscillatory experiments.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Phase angles obtained from application of Eq. (12) to the oscillatory data. The solid line is a representation of the inverse square root dependence given by Eq. (33), with parameters chosen to give a phase angle of 3° at the lowest experimental frequency, as explained in the text.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Calculated phase angles as a function of the normalized angular frequency from Eq. (31), for different values of relaxed Poisson’s ratio .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Contact measurement of internal fluid flow within poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) gels