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Optically controlled resonance energy transfer: Mechanism and configuration for all-optical switching
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Artistic impression of parallel two-dimensional donor and acceptor arrays, each arranged in the form of a hexagonal lattice.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Four Feynman diagrams for OCRET. Here, ∣0⟩ represents a molecule in the ground state; and relate to the excited state of the donor (on the left) and acceptor (right), respectively, with and as the corresponding intermediate states. In detail, diagram (a) depicts an instantaneous mechanism involving photon absorption and emission at the donor and acceptor, respectively, with a coupling photon created at the donor and annihilated at the acceptor; thus excitation is transferred from to . Diagrams (b), (c), and (d) are permutations that will achieve an identical final result.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Energy scheme for OCRET from to . Here, vertical arrows denote four interactions coupling the donor decay to the acceptor excitation . The directly involved energy levels are: , representing the ground electronic state for each molecule, and; and , the electronic excited states of and , respectively. Each state has its own vibrational manifold. Dashed lines denote virtual states, the closest energy levels and (not directly involved in the process, depicted in gray) being offset in energy by and . The horizontal arrow signifies energy transfer.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Energy level positionings of states ∣0⟩, , and for donor and their corresponding symmetry classes for point group symmetry . Both possible classes of intermediate state, i.e., or , are shown, and the transformation properties for each allowed transition are indicated.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

As Fig. 4 caption, but for point group symmetry .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Orientations of the relevant transition dipole moments for both donor and acceptor , determined for each of the possible intermediate state symmetries. These are illustrated for the point groups: (a) and (b) .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Graphical depiction of parallel one-dimensional linear-lattice arrays. Here, represents the lattice constant and the displacement of the upper donor array from the lower acceptor array. The optically active molecules, each labeled with an integer coordinate, are denoted by pale ellipses (ground state) or a dark ellipse (excited state).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Plot of , where is the time-dependent probability, against the aspect ratio for optical transfer from an excited molecule in the donor linear array to the required destination in the acceptor linear array (0-0); also depicted are the “cross-talk” probabilities for transfer to another molecule in either the acceptor or the donor array, and the sum of all three transfer possibilities (total). (Inset) difference between logarithms of the 0-0 and the sum probabilities for various , signifying on a logarithmic scale the transfer fidelity; on the ordinate axis each increment corresponds to 2.3% loss.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Structure of the two-dimensional square-lattice arrays, viewed from above. Both lie in the plane, with all donor transition moments (black) in the upper array parallel to the axis, and all acceptor transition moments (gray) in the lower array parallel to the axis. The open arrows represent one excited donor and its counterpart acceptor. By reducing both arrays to a single row or column an equivalent graphical representation to Fig. 7 is found.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Graph illustrating against for pair of two dimensional square arrays. Here, the irradiance of the input laser is and the key is that of Fig. 8.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Graph as Fig. 10, but for .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

In-plane coordinate system for a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Graph illustrating against for pair of two dimensional hexagonal arrays. Here, the irradiance of the input laser is .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Graph as Fig. 13, but for .


Generic image for table
Table I.

List of the relevant transition dipole moments and their orientations for the donor and acceptor.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optically controlled resonance energy transfer: Mechanism and configuration for all-optical switching