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Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors
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10.1063/1.2823131
/content/aip/journal/jcp/128/5/10.1063/1.2823131
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jcp/128/5/10.1063/1.2823131
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

OPNMR equipment schematic, which includes an optical excitation source, a static rf probe mounted into a low temperature cryostat. The system is typically situated in a high field superconducting magnet. The laser irradiation is applied normal to the sample surface, which is parallel to the direction of the field (i.e., in the Faraday geometry). Reproduced with permission from A. Goto, R. Miyabe, K. Hashi, T. Shimizu, S. Ohki, G. Kido, and S. Machida, Jpn. J. App. Phys. 42, 2864 (2003). ‘‘Copyright 2003 by the Japan Society of Applied Physics.’’

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

OPNMR pulse sequence schematics: (a) with and the light on (shown by the additional block) or off during acquisition; and (b) with both and , where the light is shuttered prior to rf acquisition. SAT is a saturating rf pulse train. ‘‘rf pulse-acquire’’ refers to the acquisition pulse sequence.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Band structure diagram of direct gap cubic semiconductors (e.g., GaAs, InP) at . The edges of the conduction and valence band can be approximated as atomic-like states, and , respectively. quantum numbers are indicated, and allowed transitions for irradiation are shown. The arrows connecting states depict that the transition is three times more likely than the transition.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The temperature dependence of for in si-GaAs for indicated photon energies as a function of temperature at , , , , and . Inset is an expanded view of selected photon energies. Reprinted figure with permission from A. K. Paravastu, S. E. Hayes, B. E. Schwickert, L. N. Dinh, M. Balooch, and J. A. Reimer, Phys. Rev. B 69, 075203 (2004). ‘‘Copyright 2004 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Helicity modulation , linear polarization enhancement , and photocurrent for si-GaAs as a function of photon energy. Reused figure with permission from A. K. Paravastu, P. J. Coles, T. D. Ladd, R. S. Maxwell, and J. A. Reimer, Applied Physics Letters 87, 232109 (2005). ‘‘Copyright 2005 by the American Institute of Physics.’’

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) OPNMR resonances from si-GaAs for two helicities of light for times, as indicated. The black vertical bar is the resonance frequency of GaAs at with conventional detection, no optical pumping (at , or ). (b) Hyperfine shift of the center of gravity of the line shape with respect to the unshifted signal [shown by the black vertical bar in (a)] as a function of . Fits of the data to the scalar diffusion equation for two different values of (shown in the legend) were unsuccessful. Reprinted figures with permission from K. Ramaswamy, S. Mui, and S. E. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 74, 153201 (2006); and K. Ramaswamy, S. Mui, and S. E. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B. 75, 249903 (2007). ‘‘Copyright 2006 and 2007, respectively, by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

OPNMR signal intensity dependence on photon energy of (a) high resistivity “bulk” GaAs (, , ), (b) Si-doped GaAs (, ), and (c) Be-doped GaAs (, ). For all three, , , and . Reprinted figure with permission from T. Pietrass, A. Bifone, T. Room, and E. L. Hahn, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4428 (1996). ‘‘Copyright 1996 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

OPNMR line shape dependence on photon energy of si-GaAs. The NMR spectra were positioned such that the central transition is aligned with the corresponding excitation energy. , , and . helicity light produced absorptive signals; helicity produced both absorptive and emissive signals. Reprinted figure with permission from A. K. Paravastu and J. A. Reimer, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045215 (2005). ‘‘Copyright 2005 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

OPNMR signal intensity dependence on photon energy and polarization of InP:Fe at , , , , , and . Reprinted figure with permission from C. A. Michal and R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8672 (1999). ‘‘Copyright 1999 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

OPNMR images of OPNMR of InP:Fe for the photon energies indicated. , , , , and polarization (artificially phased to be positive). Reprinted figure with permission from C. A. Michal and R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8672 (1999). ‘‘Copyright 1999 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Parameters extracted from images of InP:Fe. (a) Total integrated intensity, (b) optical pumping efficiency, and (c) penetration depth. , , , and polarization. Reprinted figure with permission from C. A. Michal and R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8672 (1999). ‘‘Copyright 1999 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

OPNMR of semiconducting silicon with linear polarization: (a) experiment and (b) calculated photon energy dependence. The different curves are for different laser powers indicated in the legend. Reprinted figure with permission from A. S. Verhulst, I. G. Rau, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235206 (2005). ‘‘Copyright 2005 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

OPNMR intensity of si-GaAs as a function of photon energy and helicity for two sample thicknesses, and and both helicites of light, as shown in the legend: (a) experiment and (b) simulation. Figure adapted with permission from S. Mui, K. Ramaswamy, and S. E. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195207 (2007). ‘‘Copyright 2007 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

OPNMR hyperfine shift of si-GaAs as a function of photon energy and helicity, as shown in the legend, for the thick sample: (a) experiment and (b) simulation. Figure adapted with permission from S. Mui, K. Ramaswamy, and S. E. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195207 (2007). ‘‘Copyright 2007 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(a) Simulated laser intensity, (b) , occupation probability, (c) nuclear polarization , and (d) hyperfine shift of as a function of depth into the sample . The plot depicts three representative photon energies as indicated in the legend for sub-bandgap , bandedge , and super-bandgap irradiation with light. Reprinted figure with permission from S. Mui, K. Ramaswamy, and S. E. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195207 (2007). ‘‘Copyright 2007 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

OPNMR signals for si-GaAs as a function of photon energy for different field strengths (as indicated), unpolarized light, . Data at photon energies “a” and “b” were extracted for simulation purposes. Reprinted figure with permission from P. L. Kuhns, A. Kleinhammes, T. Schmiedel, W. G. Moulton, P. Chabrier, S. Sloan, E. Hughes, and C. R. Bowers, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7824 (1997). ‘‘Copyright 1997 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Simulated OPNMR signals for GaAs (a) for different laser polarizations (or unpolarized light for ∥), and (b) for different electron factors. Reprinted figure with permission from P. L. Kuhns, A. Kleinhammes, T. Schmiedel, W. G. Moulton, P. Chabrier, S. Sloan, E. Hughes, and C. R. Bowers, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7824 (1997). ‘‘Copyright 1997 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Photon energy dependence of OPNMR signals in undoped InP, recorded using the field-ramp method, , (during detection), and unpolarized laser light. Inset framed image is spectra with and without ( scale) optical pumping. Inset unframed image is the photoluminescence spectrum recorded at . Reprinted figure with permission from A. Patel, O. Pasquet, J. Bharatam, E. Hughes, and C. R. Bowers, Phys. Rev. B 60, R5105 (1999). ‘‘Copyright 1999 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Magnetic field dependence of the (●) and (×) OPNMR resonances from undoped InP and si-GaAs, respectively. and , respectively. resonances recorded in the dark are shown (○). Reprinted figure with permission from A. Patel, O. Pasquet, J. Bharatam, E. Hughes, and C. R. Bowers, Phys. Rev. B 60, R5105 (1999). ‘‘Copyright 1999 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

OPNMR signal intensity dependence on retarder settings for : (a) bulk GaAs, , and ; (b) Si-doped (-type), , and ; and (c) Be-doped (p-type), , and . Reprinted figure with permission from T. Pietrass, A. Bifone, T. Room, and E. L. Hahn, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4428 (1996). ‘‘Copyright 1996 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

of InP:Fe comparing rf excitation by a strong pulse (pulse , ) for (a) and (b), and a long, weak pulse (pulse , ) for (c) and (d). Conventional NMR experiment ( and ) for (a) and (c). OPNMR experiment with and , , polarization, for (b) and (d). Reprinted figure with permission from C. A. Michal and R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3988 (1998). ‘‘Copyright 1998 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

OPNMR signals intensity as a function of photon energy for the indicated helicities at two different field strengths: (a) and (b) , using single pulses in the rf excitation sequence. (, ). Reprinted figure with permission from A. Goto, K. Hashi, T. Shimizu, R. Miyabe, X. Wen, S. Ohki, S. Machida, T. Iijima, and G. Kido, Phys. Rev. B 69, 075215 (2004). ‘‘Copyright 2004 by the American Physical Society.’’

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

OPNMR signal intensity as a function of photon energy for the indicated helicities at two different field strengths: (a) and (b) , using single pulses in the rf excitation sequence. (, ). Reprinted figure with permission from A. Goto, K. Hashi, T. Shimizu, R. Miyabe, X. Wen, S. Ohki, S. Machida, T. Iijima, and G. Kido, Phys. Rev. B 69, 075215 (2004). ‘‘Copyright 2004 by the American Physical Society.’’

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2008-01-29
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jcp/128/5/10.1063/1.2823131
10.1063/1.2823131
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