Mixing pressure of polyacrylate gels vs gel volume fraction in salt solutions containing 40 mmol/l NaCl plus various amounts of at room temperature; data from Horkay and co-workers (Refs. 9 and 27). The curves show Eq. (2) fitted to the data; and are shown in Fig. 8.
Equilibrium swelling degree of polyacrylate gels in salt solutions containing 40 mmol/l NaCl plus various concentrations of at room temperature; data from Horkay and co-workers (Refs. 9 and 27).
Equilibrium swelling curves for simulated polyelectrolyte gels with various mixtures of explicit monovalent or divalent counterions.
Osmotic pressure of simulated polyelectrolyte gels. The curves are obtained by fitting Eq. (2) to the data via Eq. (20).
Excess contributions to the osmotic pressure of simulated gels: network (◼), electrostatics (▲), and monovalent counterion excluded-volume and divalent counterion excluded-volume (both ●).
Snapshot of simulated polyelectrolyte gel (, , , and ). The polyelectrolyte network backbone is black, monovalent counterions are gray, and divalent counterions are white. The dashed-square section in the left figure is enlarged on the right.
Monomer-monovalent counterion and monomer-divalent counterion pair radial distribution functions. The state of the gel is the same as in Fig. 6.
Flory–Huggins parameters and for sodium polyacrylate gels in the presence of 40 mmol/l NaCl plus various concentrations of ; data from Horkay and co-workers (Refs. 9 and 27).
Flory–Huggins parameter as a function of the charge interaction strength and the gel volume fraction for simulated polyelectrolyte gels with divalent counterions . The values of and shown here give the fitted isotherms for in Fig. 4.
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