obtained using quantum calculations for molecules with (a) , (b) , and (c) . In each panel, the rotational response to a 10 ps laser pulse is compared to the rotational response to a 95 ps laser pulse. corresponds to .
Comparison between classical and quantum-mechanical alignment dynamics for (a) , , (b) , , (c) , , (d) , , (e) , , and (f) , . corresponds to .
Comparison between classical and quantum-mechanical alignment dynamics for , .
Laser/x-ray cross correlation, detected via resonant absorption of linearly polarized x rays, as a function of the time delay between the laser and x-ray pulses. See the text for details. (a) , , (b) , , (c) , , (d) , , (e) , , and (f) , . corresponds to .
Ultrafast x-ray diffraction imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of bromine molecules at 1 K kicked by a horizontally polarized 50 fs laser pulse, centered at , with a peak intensity of . The top panel shows the time evolution of . The probability to observe a given is shown in the middle panel as a polar plot for three different time delays. The corresponding x-ray diffraction patterns (20 keV photon energy, 1 ps pulse duration) are shown in the bottom panel. The coordinates and lie in the x-ray detector plane; is the distance between the detector plane and the target.
Ensemble-averaged rotational period at a temperature of 1 K as a function of .
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