Schematic energy level diagram of illustrating the procedure used to determine the ionization energy of . The energy intervals are not to scale. The bold arrows show the multiphoton excitation scheme used in the present experiment.
Field ionization spectra of in the region of transitions to the Rydberg states recorded using 397 nm laser pulse energies of (a) and (b) . The vertical dashed line indicates the junction point of two different scans. The scan on the low wave number side was taken with a smaller frequency step size and more averaging for each data point to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The wave numbers are given relative to the position of the ground state of para-.
Spectrum showing the transition from the EF level to the level (a) with the calibration (b) and etalon (c) traces. The position of the hyperfine component of the P157, (1–15) rovibronic transition of was determined to be at using a frequency comb.
Distribution of the calibrated fundamental wave numbers for the transition to the level. Triangles and squares are measurements with two counterpropagating 397 nm laser beams, respectively. Closed circles are mean values of pairs of measurements. The dashed line marks the position of the overall mean value .
Potential energy diagram showing the potential energy functions of the ground state of and the ground state of and illustrating the relationship between the various ionization and dissociation energies.
Values for the ionization energy of as determined in various studies or combinations thereof. The inset is an enlargement of the dashed frame and provides a better view of the evolution over the past 20 years.
Error budget. Individual corrections and errors were determined for the frequency of the cw Ti:Sa laser and are thus multiplied by two.
Energy level intervals and determination of the ionization energy of in .
as determined in various experimental and theoretical studies or combinations thereof, in .
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