The schematic of the experimental setup. The colloidal suspension is sandwiched between two ITO-coated glass plates separated by insulating spacers. The thickness between the two electrodes is , with the center line at .
Phase diagram and typical colloidal patterns induced by an AEF. (a) A 2D colloidal crystal (△) at and . (b) 3D aggregation of colloidal particles , as captured by the SCM at and . (c) Static snapshot of colloidal chains (×) by the SCM at and . (d) Snapshot of oscillatory vortex rings (●) at and . (e) The isotropic liquid state of colloidal suspension . Scale bars represent in (b) and (c) and they represent in (a), (d), and (e), respectively.
The distribution of the dimensionless field strength between parallel electrodes induced by an external AEF at various frequencies, at . (a) Ultralow frequency . Inset shows the potential distribution in the cell. (b) . (c) The changes of the electric field strength in the vicinity of the PLs at different frequency, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 kHz (, , ). The ratio of the thickness of PLs and Debye length against the logarithm of the frequency is plotted in the inset and fit by the straight line (thickness is the height where the strength becomes constant outside the PLs).
The measurement of the lateral velocities of the particles induced by the EHD flow at different frequencies and strengths. (a) The trajectory of a moving fluorescent particle. (b) Dependence of lateral velocity on the inverse frequency. The dotted curve is the best linear fit for , i.e., (dashed line). (c) Dependence of lateral velocity on field strength. The dotted line is the best power fit with an exponent of and the solid line is a drawing of the square power law.
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