Coexistence curves for a salt-free polyelectrolyte solution with degree of ionization and 1 (the hydrophobic parameter is set to ). The dots at the top of the curves represent the critical points.
Comparison of coexistence curves between the and the DHLL results. In the DHLL, the small ions are approximated as point charges, while in the model the small ions are represented by uniform hard spheres of diameter . The parameters are set as , , and . The dots represent critical points.
Coexistence curves for a salt-free polyelectrolyte solution with various values of the hydrophobic parameter (the degree of ionization is set to ). The dots represent critical points and the asterisk represents a triple point for intermediate values of .
(a) Critical temperature and (b) critical polymer volume fraction versus the hydrophobic parameter for various degrees of ionization . The dashed lines are triple points.
Coexistence curves for polyelectrolyte solutions with added monovalent salt for (a) , (b) , and (c) . The dots represent the various critical points.
Phase diagrams of polyelectrolyte solutions with the addition of monovalent salt for . The dashed lines are tie lines. Note that there is a three-phase coexisting region inside the dashed red triangle.
Liquid-liquid coexistence curves for polyelectrolyte solutions with added (a) divalent and (b) trivalent salts (, , and ).
Phase diagrams of polyelectrolyte solutions with added trivalent salt at by accounting for ion exchange. (a) The blue dots are the initial polymer and salt volume fractions that result in phase separation. The crosses constitute the boundary for spinodal decomposition. (b) The binodal surfaces show the coexistence of two phases represented by the green and red dots. The blue area represents the set of initial volume fractions that result in phase separation [the same data of (a) shown in the three dimensional phase space]. The parameter setting is , and .
The volume fractions of all charged species during the phase separation. , while other parameter settings are the same as in Fig. 8.
Liquid-liquid phase separation with added trivalent salt at . There is no unstable region (spinodal decomposition) at this temperature.
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