Semi-infinite dielectric slabs and separated by medium . -plate is stationary and -plate is movable in direction. (a) Bare dielectric plates and (b) -plate coated with thin layer of species A.
Casimir surface energy density vs plate separation, pertinent to plates in Fig. 1(b) for reaction . Chemical reaction energy varies with plate separation due to Casimir interaction.
Variations on Fig. 2: Casimir surface energy density vs plate separation for reaction . (a) Converse of energy density vs plate separation relationship in Fig. 2. (b) Inversion of surface energy density with and .
Chemical energy vs reaction coordinate for reaction . (a) Comparison between no-Casimir interaction case (i) and Casimir interaction case (ii). Greater canonical force indicated for case (ii). (b) System accommodation to Casimir interaction for exothermic reaction: extension in and reduction in .
Redirection of chemical pathway due to Casimir interaction. At species C is thermodynamically most favored, while at species B is most favored.
Casimir energy per molecule vs molecular areal footprint for and . Energy benchmarks and characteristic molecular sizes are labeled.
Casimir catalysts. (a) Nanocatalyst particle with large plate separation: species B preferred. (b) Nanocatalyst particle with small plate separation: species A preferred.
Zero point molecular forge. (a) Casimir surface energy density vs plate separation for reaction . (b) Chemical energy vs reaction coordinate for various plate separations. Activation energy barrier decreases with decreasing .
Operation of zero point molecular forge. (a) Ribbon B in gap with -plate retracted out to . (b) -plate at forging B into A. (c) -plate retracting, forged A pulled out, and new charge of B inserted.
Casimir two-cycle: surface energy density vs plate separation for net reaction . Cycle I (Steps for reaction ) connected to cycle II (Steps for reaction ) by bridging reaction (Step for reaction ).
Streamlined Casimir two-cycle: surface energy density vs plate separation for net reaction . (See Fig. 10.) (a) Energy bridging reaction absent. (b) Rotatable dual surface movable plate for molecular forge, pertinent to (a).
Mechanically driven zero point engine with alternating A-B ribbon drive. -plate oscillation energy provided by forcibly pulling ribbon through gap. [For self-propelling ribbon, the upper precursor section (B-ribbon) must be pure A-ribbon.]
Zero point engine. (a) Chemical energy vs reaction coordinate at and pertinent to cycle in Fig. 2. (b) Traditional thermodynamic work cycle: Casimir force vs plate separation. Area enclosed by cycle is ideal work output. -plate oscillation energy provided by .
Select Hamaker coefficients H (in zJ) for near-zero plate separation across vacuum and water (Ref. 13).
Benchmark energies for representative physical chemical phenomena in various energy units.
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