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Mechanism of molecular orientation by single-cycle pulses
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Instantaneous orientation, ⟨cos θ⟩ for initial state, at t 0 = −T/2, |J = 0⟩, and eight different single-cycle pulses of zero area. The electric field for each one of these pulses is given by . Parameters of the pulses, in reduced units of time (ℏ/B), are: (a) σ = 14, T = 100, ω = 0.1, μE 0/B = 2 (solid line), 4 (dashed line), (b) σ = 0.45, T = 3, ω = 3, μE 0/B = 5 (solid line), 10 (dashed line), (c) σ = 0.045, T = 0.3, ω = 30, μE 0/B = 50 (solid line), 100 (dashed line), and (d) σ = 0.0045, T = 0.03, ω = 300, μE 0/B = 500 (solid line), 1000 (dashed line).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Instantaneous orientation, ⟨cos θ⟩, for initial states corresponding to four different Floquet eigenstates (see Appendix), during a single-cycle pulse. Pulse parameters, in reduced units of time (ℏ/B), are: σ = 0.45, T = 3, ω = 3, μE 0/B = 10. The curves correspond to the Floquet eigenstates whose eigenvalues, in B/ℏ units, are: −0.17 (black), −0.58 (red), −0.53 (green), and −0.89 (blue). These wave packets are formed essentially, in the four cases, by combining the five lowest rotational eigenstates. Although large peak orientationes are obtained, the integrated orientation over the pulse duration is strictly zero by symmetry.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Instantaneous orientation, ⟨cos θ⟩, for three sequences of single-cycle pulses and initial state Ψ(−T/2) = |J = 0⟩. Parameters of the pulses, in reduced units of time (ℏ/B), are σ = 0.0045, T = 0.01π, ω = 300, μE 0/B = 1000 (black line), σ = 0.045, T = 0.1π, ω = 30, μE 0/B = 100 (red line), and σ = 0.45, T = π, ω = 3, μE 0/B=10 (green line).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Time-average orientation, ⟨⟨cos θ⟩⟩, over a rotational period, for two different regimes, as a function of field strength. Parameters, in reduced units of time (ℏ/B), are: (a) σ = 0.045, T = 0.1π, and (b) σ = 0.45, T = π. Thus, the time average in panel a corresponds, at each point, to 10 pulses and in panel b to one pulse.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Mechanism of molecular orientation by single-cycle pulses