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Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

System configuration and streaming velocity profiles. (a) The lower surface (pink) represents the hydrophilic wall while the upper wall is hydrophobic. Streaming velocity profiles are shown below, where the horizontal axis gives the y-coordinate in the channel. The amplitude of the external field is fixed while the frequency varies in steps of approximately 6 GHz. (b) Two hydrophilic walls and the associated streaming velocity profiles at fixed field strength and variable frequency. Images generated using VMD. 50

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Streaming velocity profiles across the channel of water confined between two different planar walls. (a) The width of the channel is h = 2.25 nm. The frequency is kept constant while varying the amplitude. (b) As in (a), except for a larger channel width of h = 2.89 nm. The hydrophilic surface is on the left, whereas the hydrophobic surface is on the right of both figures.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) and (b) Maximum (absolute) streaming velocities adjacent to the hydrophobic wall versus electric field for h = 2.25 nm and frequency 23.9 GHz. (a) 0 ⩽ E < 0.15 VÅ−1, with a quadratic fit (curve) and (b) 0 ⩽ E < 0.35 VÅ−1 with points connected to guide the eye. (c) Maximum (absolute) streaming velocities versus electric field frequency for h = 2.25 nm, (d) for h = 2.89 nm. In (c), (d) E = 0.0289 VÅ−1 for the black colored squares, and 0.195, 0.363 and 0.531 VÅ−1 for the green, red and blue squares, respectively. The field frequency (x-axis) ranges from 9.5 to 150 GHz.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Temperature profiles measured for fixed field strength E = 0.184 VÅ−1 and frequency ranging from ω/2π = 6.69 GHz to 41.1 GHz.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Numerical solutions of the steady-state ENS. (a) Asymmetric channel ENS solution (solid black line), compared with NEMD simulation results (solid red circles) for E = 0.184 VÅ−1 and ω/2π = 23.9 GHz. (b) Solution for the symmetric channel, compared with NEMD simulation results for the same field parameters. (c) NEMD data for the spin angular velocity. All error bars represent the associated standard deviations of six independent runs.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

z-component profile of the torque per unit water mass, computed from Eq. (12) for the system with N = 270 water molecules. The torque is injected by the uniform rotating field with E = 0.184 VÅ−1 and ω/2π = 23.9 GHz.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Number density profile of water as a function of the distance from the hydrophilic plate (on the left).


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Scitation: Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields