Flow of the roots in the complex plane under increasing torsion. The size of the arrows indicates the speed with which the roots flow as explained in the text.
The local relative extension for DNA in a confined environment, producing a standard deviation up to 8 nm with a range of torques applied along the backbone. The persistence lengths were chosen to be P b = 50 nm and P c = 100 nm.
The squeezing out of thermal writhe for DNA by anisotropy for 3 different torques while keeping the influence of bending modes constant. The elastic moduli are chosen as in Fig. 2 .
Two hairpins forming a planar loop of writhe ≃ 1.
Extension of a 60 μm DNA chain in square nanochannels with widths from 30 to 450 nm, without torque and with torques of 2 and 4 pNnm (τ = 0.5, 1), the dots are experimental data from Ref. 4 .
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