Schematic view of experiment: (1) water storage, (2) water oven, (3) nozzle, (4) skimmer, (5) oven and interaction region, (6) Scienta R4000 hemispherical electron analyzer, and (7) liquid nitrogen cooled cold trap.
(a) A typical photoelectron spectrum containing both molecular and cluster features measured using photon energy of 79.6 eV. (b) Measured H2O molecular outer-valence (labels 1–3) and inner-valence (label 4) features, valence and K 3p features of KI molecule (labels 5 and 6, respectively), and He 1s line (label 7). (c) Water cluster photoelectron spectrum (labels 1′–4′), valence and K 3p features of KI wet clusters (labels 5′ and 6′, respectively).
Sodium 2p photoelectron spectrum of (a) NaF, (b) NaCl, and (c) NaBr vapor and wet-salt clusters.
Potassium 3p photoelectron spectrum of (a) KCl, (b) KBr, and (c) KI vapor and wet-salt clusters.
Chloride 2p photoelectron spectrum of (a) NaCl and (b) KCl vapor and wet-salt clusters.
Bromide 3d photoelectron spectrum of (a) NaBr and (b) KBr vapor and wet-salt clusters.
Iodide 4d photoelectron spectrum of KI vapor (dotted line) and vapor and wet-salt clusters (solid line).
The binding energies of the valence spectrum of H2O molecule, (H2O) n clusters and liquid water. All values are in electron volts.
Experimental binding energies of alkali cations and halide anions in wet-salt clusters E(wet cl.), aqueous solutions E(aq.), dry alkali–halide clusters E(dry cl.), and monomers E(mon.). Two values refer to the different spin-orbit states.
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