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Perspective: Defining and quantifying the role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis
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Enzymes control chemical reactions that are key to life processes, and allow them to take place on the time scale needed for synchronization between the relevant reaction cycles. In addition to general interest in their biological roles, these proteins present a fundamental scientific puzzle, since the origin of their tremendous catalytic power is still unclear. While many different hypotheses have been put forward to rationalize this, one of the proposals that has become particularly popular in recent years is the idea that dynamical effects contribute to catalysis. Here, we present a critical review of the dynamical idea, considering all reasonable definitions of what does and does not qualify as a dynamical effect. We demonstrate that no dynamical effect (according to these definitions) has ever been experimentally shown to contribute to catalysis. Furthermore, the existence of non-negligible dynamical contributions to catalysis is not supported by consistent theoretical studies. Our review is aimed, in part, at readers with a background in chemical physics and biophysics, and illustrates that despite a substantial body of experimental effort, there has not yet been any study that consistently established a connection between an enzyme’s conformational dynamics and a significant increase in the catalytic contribution of the chemical step. We also make the point that the dynamical proposal is not a semantic issue but a well-defined scientific hypothesis with well-defined conclusions.
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