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Comment on “Gauge-invariant expectation values of the energy of a molecule in an electromagnetic field” [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 044109 (2016)]
An equation (N) in Ref. 1 is denoted here by [(N)]; we prefer to use for the rth component of the coordinate for particle n and generally suppress the space-time variables in the field quantities to simplify notation.
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This is a special use of the symbol ≈ to denote “weak equality” in the sense of constrained Hamiltonian dynamics;8,11 it has nothing to do with “approximation.”
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The ‘problem’ identified in the paper [J. Chem.Phys. 144, 044109 (2016)] does not arise in a properly formulated non-relativistic Hamiltonian formalism for both classical and quantum electrodynamics.
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